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Chemistry Revision

Hazard Symbols

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States of Matter

As heat is added to a solid the particles start to vibrate more and more vigorously. Eventually when it
reaches its melting point the particles have enough energy to break their bonds and melt into a
liquid. As it is cooled energy is taken away so the…

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Held on energy levels
First level can only hold 2 electrons
After the first the rest of the energy levels can hold 8
Electrons heavily influence the chemical properties of an element
Electrolytes are substances that conduct electricity when molten or in solution (ionic)

An atom with the…

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Gas Tests:
Hydrogen ­ Lit splint gives a squeaky `pop'
Carbon Dioxide ­ Turns Limewater cloudy
Oxygen ­ Re-lights a glowing splint
Ammonia ­ Turns red litmus blue (Smells distinctively)
Chlorine ­ Green gas bleaches blue damp litmus

Anhydrous copper sulphate goes from white to blue
Cobalt Chloride goes…

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Hydrochloric Acid ­ Chloride
Sulphuric Acid ­ Sulphate
Nitric Acid ­ Nitrate
Phosphoric Acid ­ Phosphate

Acid + Metal = Salt + Hydrogen
Acid + Base = Salt + Water
Acid + Carbonate = Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide

Strength of Acids ­ A strong acid totally dissociates to…

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There are 3 types of bonding: ionic, covalent and metallic.

An ionic bond is the electrostatic force of attraction that occurs between two ions.
It's strength depends on the charges on ions
High melting and boiling points
Soluble in water
Conduct electricity when in solution or molten

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The electrostatic force of attraction between the lattice of ions and delocalised sea of
Regular arrangement (lattice) of ions
Surrounded by a delocalised sea of electrons.
Conduct electricity and heat because of mobile electrons
Malleable because layers of ions can slide over each other
Between 2 or more…

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The number of outer electrons on the outer energy level is determined by what group the
element is in and therefore what its ion is. E.g Na = Na Mg = Mg²
The number of energy levels is determined by what period E.g Mg is in period 3 and its…

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Despite extra protons on elements lower down the group the further you go from the
nucleus with more energy levels it becomes harder to attract and extra electron.

Reactions of Halogens

Displacement ­ Due to it forming a reactivity series different Halogens will displace each other just as
metals do:…

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2. Determine the ratio between compounds and alter accordingly
3. Use this to figure out desired value

Empirical Formula Calculations

There are 4 steps to figuring out the empirical formula of any compound when you are given the
masses or percentage of the different elements within it:

1. Lay out…




Looks AMAZING! Thanks!!

Poppy Evans


Looks great :)



Does this include triple too? Thanks 

Toby Hubbard





thank you so much xxxxx

Janna Kenna


Thank you so much! :)

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