Full Notes: AQA Unit 2 Psychology(PSYA2)

I don 't know whether there are any spelling/general errors.. but i felt like sharing my notes ^_^

EDIT: Q_Q There are a number of mistakes where I repeated some words...ignore those or tell me, and I'll alter my notes ~XD

EDIT2: Corrected the mistakes I could find.. ~

EDIT3: I found more mistakes.. T__T corrected them.. ~

EDIT4: Seriously. The flaws in these notes! ~ New version is up.. Wonder what new editing stuff I need to do next?!

Check back often if you've downloaded.. I've probably corrected more mistakes ;)

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L. H
PSYA2
May 2012
AS Psychology- Revision Notes
Unit 2- PSYA2 ­ Biological Psychology, Social Psychology and Individual Differences
Biological Psychology: Stress
Autonomic Nervous System(ANS)
Brain Perceives ~ Maintain normal functioning of bodily systems.
Stressor
Sympathetic Parasympathetic
~Bodily arousal ~ Bodily relaxation
HP/BPINCREASE ~HP/BPNORMAL
Hypothalamus
SAM
CRF released...
(Sympathetic Pituitary releases Consequences:
Adrenal Medulla ACTH ~ Cardiovascular problems
Axis) Increased BPCan lead to physical damage of blood
vesselsIncrease likelihood of heart disease
~Immunosuppression.
Too much cortisol=Suppressed immune system
Activates Adrenal cortex Feedback System
sympathetic nervous Releases
system (SNS) corticosteroids
Individual Differences:
~Taylor et al:
Higher levels of oxytocin (Hormone that has
Liverglucose been shown to reduce anxiety and increase
Adrenal Medulla: sociability. Associated - reduced cortisol
(energy) into
Release responses to stress and with faster recovery
bloodstream
adrenaline/nor Negative following acute stress.
adrenaline feedback... Male hormones: Reduce effect.
Reduce CRF & Female hormones: Enhance effect.
ACTH!
Chronic stress.
FOFR response. 20 Minutes to
respond
HP/BP increase...
FEEDBACK SYSTEM!
Reduction of
ACUTE STRESS
growth hormone
KIECOLT-GLASER~(EFFECTS OF STRESS)
Aim Investigate whether the stress of important examinations has effect on immune functioning
Procedure Natural experiment
75 med students=volunteers
Blood samples; One month before and during exams.
Questionnaires~ Assess psychological variables(life events/loneliness)
Findings T cell activity (1) most reduced during exams. (1) high levels of life events and loneliness
Conclusions Immune function affected by exam stress and psychological variables.
Evaluation Only med students= Non representative=limits generalising to wider population
Natural experiment=fewer ethical objections...HOWEVER can only say negative correlation. NOT causal relationship.
SEGERSTROM & MILLER MARUCHA ET AL EVANS ET AL
Meta-analysis- 293 studies. Punch biopsy in mouth of student either in Found an increase of antibody activity in
Short term stressors ­ boost immune summer of 3 days before an exam acute stress condition, reduced activity in
system. Exam group took 40% longer to heal than longer term stress condition too.
Long term- suppression of immune system holiday group

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L. H
COHEN ET AL- C for Cold
PSYA2
May 2012
Aim Role of general life stress on vulnerability to cold virus
Procedure 394 participants- questionnaires on number of stressful life events in the previous year. Rate degrees of
stress and level of negative emotions. Combined to STRESS INDEX
Findings 82% becoming infected with virus. 7 days later- developed to clinical colds.
Infection positively correlated with stress index score
Conclusions High levels of stress reduce immune function...…read more

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L. H
PSYA2
May 2012
Daily Hassles
DELONGIS ET AL
Aim How stresses and strains of daily life affect us.
Procedure 100 (45-64years) from San Francisco. Well-adjusted and high income.
four questionnaires once a month for a year
Findings Frequency and intensity of hassles were significantly correlated with overall health status and bodily symptoms.
Daily uplifts has little effect on health.
Conclusion Daily hassles affect overall health status.
Evaluation Overlooked chronic sources of stress (poor housing... etc.…read more

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L. H
JOHANASSEN PSYA2
May 2012
Aim Investigate whether work stressors such as repetitiveness, machine regulated ace of work .. increase stress-related
psychological arousal and stress-related illness.
Procedure 14 finishers at Swedish sawmill. Compared with low risk cleaners (control group) = more varied ,
Largely self-paced levels of stress related hormones were measured on work/rest days.…read more

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L. H
PSYA2
May 2012
Hardy Personality:
CONTROL: COMMITMENT: CHALLENGE:
Hardy people see themselves as being in Involved with world around them. Life changes are seen as challenges to be
control of their lives , rather than controlled Have a strong sense of purpose overcome rather than threats or stressors.
by external factors Enjoy life as an opportunity for development
KOBASA: EVALUATION OF HARDY:
Concept of negative affectivity.
High NA individuals = report
800 US Business execs. Used SRRS
distress/dissatisfaction.…read more

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L. H
PSYA2
May 2012
HARDINESS TRAINING : Kobasa
Focusing client taught to recognise physiological signs of stress
Reliving stressful encounters client relives stressful encounters and is helped by therapist to
analyse their response to them. Also gives insight on current stress
relieving techniques.
Self-improvement insights help to develop new techniques
Strengths Weaknesses
WILLIAMS ET AL : Generalizability Kobasa's studies = white, middle class
Evidence Hardy people = problem focused and support busnessmen
seeking measures CANNO GENERALISE to women, etc..…read more

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L. H
PSYA2
May 2012
Social Psychology Conformity & Obedience:
Social influence The process by which an individual's attitudes, beliefs or behaviour is modified by
the presence or actions of others
Conformity A change in behaviour or belief as a result of real or imagined pressure.
COMPLIANCE INTERNALISATION
Publicly conforming to the behaviour or views of others in a group A change of private view s to match those of group (also changes public
but privately maintaining one's own views.…read more

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L. H
PSYA2
May 2012
DEUTSCH & GERARD'S DUAL PROCESS
Normative Social Influence - Informational Social Influence -
Desire to be liked Desire to be correct
Conform so that others accept us. Look to others in how to behave (situations=ambiguous.)
Result=compliance Result=Internalisation
SOCIAL IMPACT THEORY
Pressure to fit in is heightened when a group is important or significant when a large amount of time is spent with them. (E.G.…read more

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L. H
PSYA2
May 2012
MILGRAM- OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY
Aim To investigate whether people will obey to a person of authority if it means inflicting pain on another innocent
stranger.
Procedure 40(20-50yrs) M participants paid $4.50 for turning up. Told that there would be two groups: learner and teacher.
SINGLE BLIND- Not told true details of experiment. The other participant and experimenter were confederates.
Participant/teacher as told to give electric shocks every time the learner gave the wrong answer.…read more

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L. H
PSYA2
May 2012
GAMSON, FIREMAN & RYTINA
Aim to find out under what circumstances people will refuse to go along with an unjust authority,
Procedure Participants from Michigan, US, made a video were asked to sign statements that could be used in court.
Findings 32/33 groups rebelled in some way.
25/33 groups, the majority refused to sign consent form.…read more

Comments

Shams

thank you

Dagmara

i can't open it any other way that i can access it? errors show when i open it weirdly.. 

zahra abbas

thank you sooooo much. saved my life!!!!

CrystalHarvie

Really helpful

The way it's all been presented makes it so much easier to revise from!!

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