Memory - AQA (A) PSYA1

Includes pretty much everything for Memory. I tried to condense each topic down to a page. 

Models of memory

• The multi-store model, including the concepts of encoding, capacity and

duration. Strengths and limitations of the model

• The working memory model, including its strengths and limitations

Memory in everyday life

• Eyewitness testimony (EWT). Factors affecting the accuracy of EWT, including

misleading information, anxiety, age of witness

• Improving accuracy of EWT, including the use of the cognitive interview

• Strategies for memory improvement

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  • Created on: 27-04-14 10:49
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Page 1

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Strategies for Memory Improvement 06/04/2014 11:05




STM: MEASURED IN SECONDS
Peterson and Peterson
AIM ­ to assess the duration of STM
PROCEDURE
o 24 university students given a consonant meaningless syllable followed
by a 3 digit number
o Asked to count backwards from that number in 3s until told to…

Page 2

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Strategies for Memory Improvement 06/04/2014 11:05




ENCODING
LTM ­ semantic
STM ­ acoustic or visual
Baddeley
AIM ­ investigate effects of acoustic and semantic similarity on recall.
PROCEDURE - Gave participants a list of words that were acoustically
similar and dissimilar and words that were semantically similar and
dissimilar.
FINDINGS…

Page 3

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Strategies for Memory Improvement 06/04/2014 11:05




ATKINSON AND SHIFFRIN ­ LAB EXPERIMENT (Validity)
Sensory memory ­ information collected at the senses. Retained for a very
brief period. Large capacity. Info only transferred to STM if attention.
Sperling ­ supports limited duration of sensory store as he found
recall was poorer…

Page 4

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Strategies for Memory Improvement 06/04/2014 11:05




BADDELEY AND HITCH ­ LAB EXPERIMENT (Validity)
Developed to challenge the MSM as they felt the STM wasn't
just one single store because: You can do two different tasks
at the same time but not two similar tasks.
Central executive ­ supervises the working…

Page 5

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Strategies for Memory Improvement 06/04/2014 11:05




1. Witness encodes details of event into LTM. May be partial or distorted.
2. Witness retains information for period of time. May be modified or forgotten.
3. Witness retrieves memory from storage. May not be accurate.

Misleading information - Loftus and Palmer
(Experiment 1)…

Page 6

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Strategies for Memory Improvement 06/04/2014 11:05




Parker and Caranza (children as witnesses)
Compared primary school children and college students in their
ability to correctly identify a target individual following a slide
of sequences of a mock crime.
Found the children had a higher rate of choosing however, they
were more…

Page 7

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Strategies for Memory Improvement 06/04/2014 11:05




The weapon focus effect
Loftus et al
AIM ­ to investigate whether witnesses focus on more central details
of the attack (weapon) than what's going on in violent crimes.
PROCEDURE
o 2 conditions (one with weapons, one without)
o Participants heard a discussion in…

Page 8

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Strategies for Memory Improvement 06/04/2014 11:05




Fisher and Geiselman ­ found people remember events better when
provided with retrieval cues.
1. Report everything ­ interviewer encourages witness to report every
single detail even if it may seem irrelevant.
2. Mental reinstatement of original context ­ interviewer encourages
witness to mentally…

Page 9

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Strategies for Memory Improvement 06/04/2014 11:05




Mnemonic techniques
VERBAL
Acronym ­ a word or sentence is formed from the first letters of other words. (e.g.
ROYGBIV is colours of the rainbow)
Acrostic ­ a poem or sentence where the first letter in each line or word forms the item
to…

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