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STRESS
Stress is where a person's perceived physical, social and environmental demands exceed their
perceived ability to cope. Especially when these demands are seen as endangering the person's
wellbeing in some way.

Bodies response to acute stress
Sympathomedullary pathway: An acute stressor activates the autonomic nervous system. First the
sympathetic…

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LIFE CHANGES
A discrete, one off event which can cause chronic stress
Measuring Life Changes
Holmes and Rahe (1967) are medical doctors who noticed that illness is common after major life
changes. They developed a way of measuring these life changes, called the Social Readjustment
Rating Scale (SRRS), which consists…

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performance. At the end of the month, it was found that hassles increased strain and decreased
performance, but some uplifts counteracted the negative effects of daily hassles.
Research into the HSUP was also done by Flett et al (1995). 320 students (160 girls and 160 boys)
read a scenario describing…

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Personality Types
There are two main personality types, type A and type B. Type A individuals are competitive,
achievement striving, impatient, urgent, aggressive and hostile, and Type B individuals are easy
going, patient and relaxed. Type A have an increased risk of stress related because their fight or
flight response…

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Also, much of the research to support the link between hardiness and health had relied upon data
from self report questionnaires. This means such of this research has low validity as people may
misunderstand questions, or lie due to social desirability bias.

PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS OF STRESS MANAGEMENT
Stress Inoculation Therapy…

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released into the neuron. The Cl- make the neurone less responsive to other neurotransmitter, which
makes the individual feel calmer.
Beta-Blockers: Beta-Blockers reduce the activity of adrenalin and noradrenalin by binding to
receptors on the cells of organs stimulated by the flight or fight response (e.g. the heart). This causes…

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SOCIAL INFLUENCE
CONFORMITY
When we adjust our behaviour or opinion to match more closely the behaviour or opinions of others,
normally to fit in with a group of people. There are 2 types of conformity, compliance and
internalisation. Compliance is where we change our views publically but hold different views…

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Research into conformity was conducted by Asch in 1956. 123 American male college students from
4 Universities were selected on a voluntary basis to take part in what they thought was a visual
judgement task. Each student was paid $3 to participate. They were tested in groups of 7-9, where…

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This is where a person is protected from the consequences of their own actions, making it easier to
carry out as the person will be unaware of what effect they are having. This is the case with Milgram's
study where the teacher and learner were separated by a wall, making…

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experimenter, because when the learner cried out in pain the experimenter did not react. They may
realise that the learner was really not receiving any shocks, so they may feel more able to continue
with the experiment, accounting for the high obedience rates. This is a problem for Milgram's
research…

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