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Attachment is an emotional bond between two people, it is a 2 way process that endures over time,
serving the function of protecting the infant and leading to certain behaviours (seeking proximity,
distress on separation, pleasure on reunion and general orientation of behaviour)

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Bowlby suggests that the primary attachment figure the most important person in an infant's life,
followed by many other people in a hierarchy. However some disagree with the concept of
monotropy. Rutter suggested the multiple attachment model, that infants had a collection of people
they seemed equal. After a meta-analysis…

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home. Also, the strange situation aimed to measure the attachment type of an infant, but this
experiment only uses the infant's mother. This suggests that the experiment actually measures the
infant's attachment to their mother, not their attachment type in general. This suggests that
Ainsworth's study lacks validity. Also, parts…

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- Research by Grossman & Grossman in 1991 found that German infants are less likely to securely
attached according to the strange situation because their culture involves keeping interpersonal
differences between mother and infant, so they did not seek proximity in the strange situation.
- Research by Takahashi in 1990…

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Evaluating disruption of attachment
Strengths: There is research to support the idea that emotional care can reduce the severity of the
effects of attachment disruption. Sigvardson studied 600 adopted children from Sweden. At age 11,
26% of them were identified as problem children, but 10 years later none of them…

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then found at the age of 7 without a primary attachment figure, but recovered to normal social
development later in life. This does not support Rutter as it suggests that others may recover outside
this sensitive period.
Day care
Temporary care, not by parents, away from the home.
Signs of…

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- Research by Clarke-Stewert involved a study of 150 children, and found that those in day care had
better social development than their peers
- Field found a positive correlation between time spent in day care and number of friends
- Crepes and Vernon - Feagans found that children who…

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LTM through repetition, and the last numbers are still in STM. This supports the model by providing
evidence for its unitary stores.
> There is evidence of patients with damage to the hippocampus who's short term and long term
memory stores have been effected in different ways. H.M was involved…

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Misleading Information
Research by Loftus and Palmer in 1974 investigated the effects of misleading information on eye
witness testimony. 45 students were shown 7 traffic accident films and were then given a
questionnaire about what they had seen. One of the questions was "how fast were the cars going

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Some research into anxiety has also found opposite effects. Research by Christianson and Hubinette
involved 110 people witnessing 22 genuine back robberies, some were bystanders and some were
directly threatened. Those who were threatened experienced higher anxiety but were more
accurate in their recall even 15 months after the study…




Great, detailed notes! Only missing Research Notes chapter. ;)

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