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Mount Pinatubo 1991
The secondlargest volcanic eruption of this century, and by far the largest eruption to affect a
densely populated area, occurred at Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines on June 15, 1991. The
eruption produced highspeed avalanches of hot ash and gas, giant mudflows, and a cloud of

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Volcanic events

June 1991 ­ Eruption lasted 1 week. VEI was 6 (these eruptions have profound long term
effects on the surrounding area and noticeable short term effects on global climate.) The
volcano had not erupted in the last 600 years.
9th June ­ First day of eruptions. (level 5…

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Short Term

800 people killed 300 by collapsing roofs and 100 by lahars(including some Aeta who
refused to move from their `holy mountain'. (Many of these deaths were not immediate.)
2 million houses, a hospital, schools, factories were covered in ash.
Hundreds of people had to flee to cities…

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Agriculture was heavily disrupted, with 800 square kilometres (200,000 acres) of
ricegrowing farmland destroyed, and almost 800,000 head of livestock and poultry killed,
destroying the livelihoods of thousands of farmers. The cost to agriculture of eruption effects
was estimated to be 1.5 billion pesos.


Short Term

200,000 buildings were…

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Land use planning and science and technology were also essential


Initial response included evacuation and warning systems being used to remove people from
the danger zones which saved numerous lives. This was helped by the US geological survey
who had an interest in the island as they had an…

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Despite all the destruction, some of the volcanic materials have seeped into the surrounding
soil, enriching it with their nutrients. The grandchildren and greatgrandchildren of today's
islanders will inherit revitalized land.

Mount Etna Volcano Medc


East coast of Sicily, closest inhabited city is Catania, about 50 miles south east…

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It erupts much more frequently than composite cone volcanoes like Pinatubo

Tectonic Background

Located on a destructive plate margin between the African and Eurasian plates
Northern edge of the African plate is being subducted
The eruption in 1991 started on 14th December and last for 435 days which was the…

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· The authorities then decided to try and block off the lava flow and did this by dropping
concrete blocks into the crater using helicopters.

· However they still needed to do more so in May 1992 they decided to blast open holes in
the lava tubes in an attempt…

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therefore well away from inhabited areas. The lava had to flow more than 8 km before it
became a serious threat.
· The possibility of diverting the lava flow into uninhabited areas (at least 7 km from the
nearest village).


2002 Eruption ­ Causes

Composite or strato volcano active…

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Airport at Catonia closed for 4 days.

Ski resorts destroyed as well as a restaurant.

Hundreds of acres of forest destroyed

Eruption 2002 ­Responses

State of emergency declared.

Attempts to divert lava flow away from scientific

monitoring equipment.

Army used bulldozers to build barriers and create channels

for lava flow…


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