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Bridging the Development Gap
Living on the wrong side of the gap: Uganda
Uganda should be wealthy due to its good climate (2 rainy seasons), relatively small
population and arable/fertile land, however its HDI is 0.505 (almost half of the UKs) and GDP
merely $1454 just 4.4% of the UKs.
Their economy is based on exports of primary products thus govt. tax is low and there are few
wealthy companies and lack of investment.
Poorest 20% in Uganda IMR 106/1000 (1/9), even the richest is 20/1000 (4x that of the UK).
24% of families undernourished.
Life expectancy is low at 49.7yrs. This is due to the big killers of Malaria and Cholera and living
conditions are poor.
Low HIV/AIDS contraction: 6% of population has the disease now, compared with 1990s when
20% did, so there has been a big improvement.
Education only 17% of girls attend (free) primary education, few govt. schools and families
mostly have to pay females subservient. Only 4 universities so highly unlikely to attend.
Most girls marry by 15 and become mothers soon after, preventing further education.
Fertility rates are high at 6.8 children per woman compared to 1.9 in the UK (2012)
New laws have been put in place since the MDGs to help empower women, for example there
must be a minimum of 30% females in parliament.
TNC Mining in Botswana
Between 1970 and 2000, Botswana was one of the fastestgrowing
economies in the world.
In 1966 when the country became independent, agriculture
accounted for 40% of GDP, while mining was virtually nonexistent.
In 2006, agriculture accounted for 2% whereas mining had
increased to 40%. As a result of the mineralled economic growth,
Botswana has become an upper middleincome country where as it
previously was one of the world's poorest states.
Almost all the mining companies are either wholly owned by TNCs or operate as joint ventures
between the government and TNCs (e.g. De Beers).
Diamonds accounted for 80% of Botswana's total exports between 2001 and 2005 making it
the world's largest producer and exporter of diamonds in value terms.
Per capita GDP in Botswana has increased from $800 in 1975 to $16,500 in 2007. This has
meant rising living standards and investment in social and economic infrastructure, plus
healthy financial positions.
Two major mining companies have invested in health and education facilities in local
communities where both operate hospitals that are open to company employees and the
general public. One of which has been actively addressing HIV/AIDS which is a major problem
in Botswana with 37% of adults affected with the disease.
However, outside the mining industry Botswana continues to have problems with
unemployment and conflict in areas where mining, cattlerearing and tourism try to coexist.
ActionAid in Kenya
Population growth has continued, whilst GDP has declined. Industry
and services are collapsing, and illiteracy, disease and malnutrition are
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Life expectancy has fallen from 59 years at independence to just 46 in 2001.
In 2003, Kenya was ranked 146 out of 174 in the Human Development Index. The number of
people living in absolute poverty (on less than US$1 per day) has risen from fewer than 4
million in 1972 to over 15 million today.
ActionAid is an international NGO working to fight poverty in more than 30 countries.
ActionAid's strategy, `Fighting Poverty Together', has four main goals:
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Ghore Fera provides
housing. Rents rise as demand continues to transportation, resettlement,
exceed supply even further so many migrants and incomegeneration loans,
end up in crowded slums. About 4.2 million to help migrants return to
people live in the slums which have no clinics villages.
and only one quarter have a government Healthcare development
school. Slums are controlled by gangs who Work with local communities
demand protection money and sell illegal to rebuild trust with legal
connections to water and other services.…read more
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With an aim to reduce poverty, the Government carried out The Tanzanian Household Budget
Survey covering 22,000 households and compared the results to a similar survey that was
carried out in 1991/92. It found that:
1. Rural areas were much poorer than urban and the gap was widening.
2. Women are poorer than men, but the gap isn't as big as the one between
rural and urban areas.
3. Adult woman have lower levels of education than men.
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India's 1.3 million workers in the IT industry are based in Bangalore.
British Airways set up its accounting operations in India in 1996, setting a trend for what has
become known as outsourcing. Wages in India are 10% that of London, savings TNCs
IBM, alone, has 73,000 employees in India in 2008.
In the 1990's, Bangalore set up designated areas, such as Electronic City, to become `hubs' of
Further growth is certain.…read more