How successful has the regeneration of urban areas been, given the variety of ways in which it has been undertaken

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How successful has the regeneration of urban areas been, given the variety of ways in which it has been
undertaken? 40 marks
Urban regeneration is improving an area that has been experiencing a period of decline. There are many
different approaches to urban regeneration; property ­led regeneration (partnership scheme), retail-led
regeneration, sports-led regeneration, gentrification and rebranding. Within the UK, all of these
development schemes have been carried out in different areas and for differing reasons. Many inner cities
have suffered from urban decline in the past 30 years due to many reasons. In response to this urban
decline many local governments have introduced urban regeneration schemes. The effectiveness of
theses schemes depends on the location, the type of scheme and the way it helps the community.
Urban decline has many causes which often do interact with each other. In recent years there has been a
major decline in many of the country's traditional industries such as coal steel, shipbuilding and railway
work. As these industries tended to be located in the North and North West of England, South Wales,
Central Scotland and Northern Ireland, these are the areas that have been most effected by urban decline.
The more deprived urban regions have high levels of unemployment. In the 1980s and 90s a range of
initiatives were introduced to try to regenerate inner city areas which, as a result of changing population
and environmental decay, have suffered high rates of unemployment and other forms of deprivation. The
ethos behind the initiatives is that improvements in social, environmental and economic conditions could
best be achieved by encouraging private investment, often property or land based investment, which, in
turn, is expected to lead to jobs and improved services and infrastructure.
One regeneration scheme is rebranding; which has occurred in Glasgow. Glasgow is a known centre for
trade and industry with its easy sea links. However, the population grew from approximately 100,000 to
1.1 million in 1941 due to employment migration. The city of Glasgow soon went into decline due to
competitive global companies which caused mass unemployment and in 1970 heavy industries were
closing and 20,000 jobs were lost a year. However it was decided that Glasgow was to be rebranded.
Within the rebranding, the city had a complete change of image to attract private investment. This then
caused a positive multiplier effect as shopping centres were soon set up in the city. Flagship developments
such as the Titan crane at the docks which had been left from the industrial era has been redeveloped to
stand as one of Glasgow's icons. The development led to a restoration of the `legacy of the past' which
saw investment in museums, cinema and galleries ­ particularly the Kelvingrove art gallery and museum
which now received 3 million visitors per year. Brownfield sites along the docks and river has been
developed in to conference centres and museums, all of this development has created 60,000 jobs since
1998. This development of rebranding has been highly successful in helping the community and the city as
a whole. Alongside the complete rebranding of the city of Glasgow has been the ongoing regeneration of
the housing in Glasgow, in particular, the Gorbals. Between 1919-1939, 50,000 tenements were built to
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This meant that the inhabitants of these tenements were living in
poverty. The solution to this by the government was to build `fashionable' high rise building to
accommodate the sheer population due to the lesser costs of building upwards in flats. However as the
people became less enthusiastic about their living space the high rise buildings became run down and
increased amounts of crime occurred. This time the people of Glasgow were allowed their say into the
development of their own housing.…read more

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The whole area was unrecognisable from ten years previously. Private
land was now open to the public. Work is progressing to complete a 13km walkway around the bay and
the barrage has created a world class environment. In addition, the development has enabled land in the
city centre to be redeveloped for higher value uses. By the spread of this redevelopment, it also shows
how the partnership scheme has been successful in this particular urban area. Similar to Cardiff Bay are
the London Docklands.…read more

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­ led regeneration, however it can be argued that certain
regenerations could not occur without other types of regeneration. Using mega sporting events to act as
a catalyst for urban and social regeneration represents a significant gamble. Some cities and regions have
used the initial public investment as a springboard to wider urban development much more successfully
than other areas. There is also a `legacy' issue. For example, Athens 2004 games have been left with
considerable debts of up to 9 billion euros.…read more

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Mailbox and Cube, which is also retail regeneration, Brindley Place which
is a highly successful mixed ­land use development , Castle Vale, which is a HAT (housing action trust)
development and the Jewellery Quarter in which Gentrification has been completed. The extensive
regeneration of Birmingham's central areas from the mid-1980s onwards was an ambitious attempt to
capture inward investment and rejuvenate the cities built environment and to improve its weak image and
restore its civic pride. The 1.…read more

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Apartments have now also been constructed. The gentrification of Greater Manchester
has been a success as recently more development and gentrification has been spreading from the quays
areas to other areas of Manchester and no parts of the current gentrification sites have fallen back into
any type of urban decline, the scheme has majorly helped communities in many areas of Manchester,
clearly showing the success and the effectiveness of the scheme.
Success is ultimately dependant on a number of factors.…read more


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