Geography AQA A2 Conflict listening notes

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  • Created on: 02-06-12 17:14
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Nature and Origin of Conflict
Key Terms
Challenge A task or issue that is perceived as being provocative or threatening to debate. The issues that
arise from challanges often cause alternative view to be expressed usually in a peaceful manner but some
issues may be extreme or polarised
Conflict A state of disagreement caused by the percieved or actual opposition of needs,values an intrests
between people. Geographically it is often about opposing views about the ways in which a resource may be
developed or used. The result is negative tension between parties involved. Can result in war, harsh words or
armed conflict. Ongoing state of hostility between two or more groups of people
Causes of Conflict
Identity Identity is a sense of belonging to a group or geographical area where there is
the same generic character. Examples are Ethnicity , language and religion
Nationalism Loyalty and devotion to a nation
Regionalism Loyalty and devotion to a distinct region that share similarities
Localism An affection for a particular place rarely political
Ethnicity The group of people according to their ethnic orgins or characteristics. National, tribal, religious,
linguistic or cultural origins or background
Culture Culture is the cutsomary beliefs, social norms and tratis of racial religious or social groups and the
set of shared attiudes and values they follow
Territory An geographical area under the jurisdiction of a governmental authority. This area will have some
autonomy. Conflict can occur over who has authority over the area.
Patterns of Conflict
International Involves the participation of more than one country. Gaza strip, Afghanistan
National Conflict that takes place within a country. Egypt politics President Mubarak
Regional Conflict that takes place within an area of one country or across the borders of one or omore countries. North
South Divide England.
Local conflict is restricted to a small part of one region of a country. Sandyforth open cast mine.
Expression of Conflict
Non violent Conflict of this nature does not involve force or armed struggle. Points are made by
word signs marching and silent protests some are succesful however most end bad Ukraine 2004
Burma 2007

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Political Activity Groups within a country who seek to acquire and exert political power through government. Groups
called parties have a certain ideology and agenda to win elective office. Often involves debate for laws for example the house
of commons.
Terrorism The systematic use of fear among the public as a way of trying to force the authorities into action for a political
or ideological end. International terrorism has become increasingly more frequent in recent centuries.…read more

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Planning processes are an attempt to provide a means by which local authority planners :
.Listen to the local community (more democratic)
.Listen to the organisation responsible for a proposal
.have overall development control
A local authority's refusal to grant planning permission may lead to an appeal by the developer,
either to the local planning committee or to a higher body, for example the Department for
Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA). Planning processes are costly for local authourities,
in both time and money.…read more

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Local Conflict Case Study: Conflict on a local scale:
Heathrow expansion
The reason for the conflict
Heathrow located on the East of London within the Borough of Hillingdon. It is the busiest in the
UK and the third busiest airport in the world and is under pressure to increase its size with more
and more demand from
passengers.…read more

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The increasing amount of air travellers mean that the air travel companies will take an
increasing profit which is then TAX by the government which means that it will inject more
money into the economy, there would also be increased amount of job opputunites so
reduce the amount of unempolyed people which the government has to pay for further
improving the UK economy.
The alternatives are more expensive than this
The alternatives cost £15.…read more

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She didn't want to lose the house which she lived in so she to direct action against the
Heathrow expansion which then she became part of a Climate Change camp and Greenpeace
to help the protest. She does not agree with the plans which have been made.
Chair of No Third Runway Action Group (NoTrag) living in West Drayton
The organisation NoTrag is funded by the Hillingdon Council and represents people living in
the London Borough.…read more

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He will find it hard to move in the current
climate due to having a big mortgage and house prices increasing.
Mechanic in Harlington
He's seen a lot of expansion of the airport and is not fazed by the expansion plans and says: "But
you can't stop progress and this is what it is. It's understandable why they want to build
- everybody uses the airport.…read more

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Not able to keep up with competition ­ The stopping of the expansion and the possible reduction in
the airport size will mean that Heathrow will not be able to keep up with it European competition.
Developers - These will be under pressure to come up with another solution which can keep up wit
the rising demands.
International Conflict
The Gaza strip conflict.
Location:The Gaza strip is located within south west Israel and it
boarders with Egypt and the Mediterranean sea.…read more

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Feb 2008: The fighting intesified with more rockets being fired and Israel attacks being launched
against the Hamas
27th December 2008: Israeli fighters performed air strikes on Gaza due to the continuous rocket fire
at Israel, the air strike caused 434 killed and 2,800 injured in the attacks
3rd Jan 2009: A ground invasion on the Gaza strip by the Israeli began, this stretched over 22 days
which 1 thousand-1 point 4 thousand Palestinians and 13 Israeli were killed.…read more

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There is pollution in the groundwater as the sewage is free flowing causeing damage to the
surrounding area which can damage plants mainly crops.
Multicultrual societies in the UK
Migaration of the ethnic groups leads to the creation of multicultural societies. In most
countries there is at least one minority group and, while they may be able to live
peacefully with the majority, it is more likely that there will be a certain amount of
prehudice and discrimination leading to tensions and conflict.…read more


Iqra H

Thanks for sharing your notes! I was looking for a case study for the Heathrow Expansion conflict and I finally found something!!! 

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