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Animal Responses
By Daniella Di-Fonzo…read more

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· (a) discuss why animals need to respond to their environment;
· (b) outline the organisation of the nervous system in terms of central and
peripheral systems in humans;
· (c) outline the organisation and roles of the autonomic nervous system;
· (d) describe, with the aid of diagrams, the gross structure of the human brain,
and outline the functions of the cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata and
· (e) describe the role of the brain and nervous system in the co-ordination of
muscular movement;
· (f) describe how co-ordinated movement
· requires the action of skeletal muscles about joints, with reference to the of the
elbow joint;
· (g) explain, with the aid of diagrams and photographs, the sliding filament model
of muscular contraction;
· (h) outline the role of ATP in muscular contraction, and how the supply of ATP is
maintained in muscles;
· (i) compare and contrast the action of synapses and neuromuscular junctions;
· (j) outline the structural and functional differences between voluntary,
involuntary and cardiac muscle;
· (k) state that responses to environmental stimuli in mammals are co-ordinated
by nervous and endocrine systems;
· (l) explain how, in mammals, the `fight or flight' response to environmental
stimuli is coordinated by the nervous and endocrine systems.…read more

Slide 3

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animals need to respond to their environment
· Animals increase their survival chances by
responding to the changes in their external
· They also respond to changes in their internal
environment to ensure optimum conditions
for metabolic processes
· Any change in either environment is a
stimulus and usually elicits a response…read more

Slide 4

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the nervous system
The peripheral nervous
system; made up of
The central nervous
neurones that connect the
system; made up of the
CNS t the rest of the body-
brain and spinal cord- most
cell bodies of sensory
neurones here are
neurones are found just
intermediate neurones and
outside the spinal cord
have short dendrites
· Receptors detect stimuli and
effectors bring about a
response. Effectors include The autonomic nervous
The somatic nervous
muscles cells and cells in system controls
unconscious activities. e.g.,
system controls conscious
activities. E.g., running
glands digestion
· Receptors communicate with
effectors via the nervous or
hormonal systems, and
The parasympathetic
sometimes both The sympathetic nervous nervous system calms he
system gets the body ready body down; it's the rest and
for "fight or flight" digest system
sympathetic neurones parasympathetic neurones
release noradrenaline release the neurotransmitter
acetylcholine…read more

Slide 5

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the autonomic nervous system
· Different from somatic ns: most the neurones in ANS are non-myelinated
· SNS connections to effectors consist of one neurone as opposed to two in
· Autonomic motor neurones can be sympathetic or parasympathetic
· The sympathetic and parasympathetic systems are antagonistic
Parasympathetic sympathetic
Most active in times of sleep and relaxation Most active in times of stress
The neurones of the pathway are linked at a The neurones are linked at a ganglion just
ganglion within the target tissue. Pre- outside the spinal cord so pre-ganglionic
ganglionic neurones vary in length neurones are very short
Post-ganglionic neurones secrete Post-ganglionic neurone secrete
acetylcholine between the neurone and noradrenaline at the synapse between the
effector neurone and effector
Effects include: decreased heart rate, pupil Effects include: increased heart rate, pupil
constriction, decreased ventilation rate dilation, increased ventilation rate…read more

Slide 6

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External and internal environments are being
constantly monitored by sensors in the endocrine
and nervous system
· Responses are coordinated and balanced to ensure
survival. E.g., short term homeostatic mechanisms or
long term like mating behaviour
· The coordination is mainly the result of the brain
assessing the most appropriate response. The brain
also regulates endocrine responses through the
hypothalamus and its control of the pituitary gland…read more

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