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F215 Module 4: Responding to the Environment
(d) describe, with the aid of diagrams, the gross structure of the human brain, and outline the functions of
the cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata and hypothalamus
Cerebrum: Cerebellum:
It is responsible for the elements of the nervous system It controls the coordination of movement and posture .
that are associated with being `human' , including The fine control of muscular movements requires a
thought , imagination and reasoning .…read more

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F215 Module 4: Responding to the Environment
Sarcomere ­ the smallest contractile unit of a muscle the span from one Zline to the next of a myofibril. In a
relaxed state it is around 2.5m in length. Zlines are closer together during contraction because the lengths of
the Iband and Hzone are reduced . The Aband does not change in length during contraction.
Protein Filaments:
The protein filaments that are found in muscle cells are of two types:
1.…read more

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F215 Module 4: Responding to the Environment
Most ATP will be produced by aerobic respiration in the muscle cell mitochondria , depending on the supply of
oxygen to the muscles and the availability of the respiratory substrate .
The muscle fibre can also regenerate ATP through anaerobic respiration in the muscle cell sarcoplasm.
However, lactic acid is produced which is toxic, and leads to muscle cramp .…read more

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F215 Module 4: Responding to the Environment
Voluntary Involuntary Cardiac
Leads to the Contractions are Three types: atrial , ventricular and specialised
movement of the not under excitatory and conductive muscle fibres.
skeleton at the joints. voluntary Striated .
Striped / banded (conscious) control. Myogenic ­ capable of stimulating contraction
Muscle cells form Not striated like without a nerve impulse .
fibres, of about voluntary and Cardiac muscle fibres made of many individual cells
100m in diameter. cardiac. connected in rows .
pattern ­ striated.…read more

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F215 Module 4: Responding to the Environment
(k) state that responses to environmental stimuli in mammals are coordinated by nervous and endocrine
systems
Responses to environmental stimuli in mammals are coordinated by nervous and endocrine systems . Receptors
would detect changes in the environment. The rods and cones in the retina would detect visual stimuli and the
cochleal cells would detect auditory stimuli .…read more

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