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F215 Module 4: Responding to the Environment
5.4.2 Animal Responses

(a) discuss why animals need to respond to their environment
Living organisms need to be able to respond to changes in both the internal and external environment. All animals
need a method of coordination between their sensors and their responsive…

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F215 Module 4: Responding to the Environment
(d) describe, with the aid of diagrams, the gross structure of the human brain, and outline the functions of
the cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata and hypothalamus
Cerebrum: Cerebellum:
It is responsible for the elements of the nervous system It controls the coordination of…

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F215 Module 4: Responding to the Environment

(e) describe the role of the brain and the nervous system in the coordination of muscular movement
The fine control of muscular movements require a significant level of nonconscious operation . For example:
Muscular activities associated with balance .
Sensory activities , e.g.…

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F215 Module 4: Responding to the Environment
Sarcomere ­ the smallest contractile unit of a muscle the span from one Zline to the next of a myofibril. In a
relaxed state it is around 2.5m in length. Zlines are closer together during contraction because the lengths of
the Iband and…

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F215 Module 4: Responding to the Environment
Most ATP will be produced by aerobic respiration in the muscle cell mitochondria , depending on the supply of
oxygen to the muscles and the availability of the respiratory substrate .
The muscle fibre can also regenerate ATP through anaerobic respiration in the…

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F215 Module 4: Responding to the Environment






Voluntary Involuntary Cardiac
Leads to the Contractions are Three types: atrial , ventricular and specialised
movement of the not under excitatory and conductive muscle fibres.
skeleton at the joints. voluntary Striated .
Striped / banded (conscious) control. Myogenic ­ capable of stimulating contraction…

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F215 Module 4: Responding to the Environment








(k) state that responses to environmental stimuli in mammals are coordinated by nervous and endocrine
systems
Responses to environmental stimuli in mammals are coordinated by nervous and endocrine systems . Receptors
would detect changes in the environment. The rods and cones in the…

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