BIOLOGY F215 OCR- Animal Behavior

Full complete notes on 'Animal Behavior'- includes specification, diagrams, photos, bullet pointed lists.

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  • Created on: 26-04-12 12:28
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ANIMAL BEHAVIOR
Candidates should be able to:
(a) Explai
n t
he advant
ag es
to
o r
g a nisms
of
innate
b ehaviour
(b) Descri
be escape
refl
exes,
tax e s and ki
nesis
as examp les
of
geneti
call
y det
ermined
innat
e
b e havi
ours
(c) Explai
n t
he meaning
o f
t
he term learned behaviour
(d) Descri
be habi
tuat
ion,
imprint
in g,
cl
as si
cal
and ope r
ant
co ndi
ti
oni
ng,
lat
e nt
and
insi
ght
le arni
ng as
examp l
es of
l
e ar
ne d b ehav i
ours
(e) Descri
be,
using
one
examp le, t
he advan t
ages of
so ci
al
behaviour
i
n pr
ima t
es
(f) Di
scuss how t
he l
i
n ks
betwee n a r
an ge of
huma n behavi
o ur
s and
the
dopa mine
recept
or
D RD 4
ma y
contr
ibut
e t
o
the
u nde r
stand i
ng of
huma n behaviour
Innate Behaviour
Behaviour which is automatic. Inherited behaviour, pre set that does not require
any learning or practise. Patterns of behaviour tend to be the same in all members
of the species.
Advantages
*Escape predators, locate and stay in a suitable habitat, and locate food.
- Invertebrates have short life spans and do not care for their offspring so innate behaviour
helps the offspring.
There are three types of innate behaviour:
1) Reflexes
2) Kinesis
3) Taxes
1)Reflexes: Many invertebrates have an escape reflex to avoid predation. Earthworms for
example go underground in response to vibrations.
2) Kineses: An orientation behaviour where the rate of movement increases when the
animal is in a undesirable condition. The behaviour is non directional meaning the response is
to change the rate of movement in relation to stimuli not in any particular direction.
Woodlice for e.g move to dark areas, if put in bright light the lice will move around rapidly.
3) Taxes: Directional orientation response. Positive phototaxis is towards light stimuli.
And negative phototaxis is away from a light.

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Positive chemotaxis is towards a chemical, negative chemotaxis is away from a chemical,
More complex innate behaviours...
Learned Behaviour
*Behaviour which shows adaptation in response to life experiences. This is the greatest survival
benefit to animals with longer life spans so they have time to learn, animals with an element of
parental care which involves learning from parents. Living for a part of time with other members of
the species in order to learn from them.…read more

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