First 476 words of the document:
Candidates should be able to:
g a nisms
tax e s and ki
as examp les
b e havi
he term learned behaviour
and ope r
ne d b ehav i
examp le, t
he advan t
scuss how t
betwee n a r
an ge of
huma n behavi
D RD 4
u nde r
huma n behaviour
Behaviour which is automatic. Inherited behaviour, pre set that does not require
any learning or practise. Patterns of behaviour tend to be the same in all members
of the species.
*Escape predators, locate and stay in a suitable habitat, and locate food.
- Invertebrates have short life spans and do not care for their offspring so innate behaviour
helps the offspring.
There are three types of innate behaviour:
1)Reflexes: Many invertebrates have an escape reflex to avoid predation. Earthworms for
example go underground in response to vibrations.
2) Kineses: An orientation behaviour where the rate of movement increases when the
animal is in a undesirable condition. The behaviour is non directional meaning the response is
to change the rate of movement in relation to stimuli not in any particular direction.
Woodlice for e.g move to dark areas, if put in bright light the lice will move around rapidly.
3) Taxes: Directional orientation response. Positive phototaxis is towards light stimuli.
And negative phototaxis is away from a light.
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Positive chemotaxis is towards a chemical, negative chemotaxis is away from a chemical,
More complex innate behaviours...
*Behaviour which shows adaptation in response to life experiences. This is the greatest survival
benefit to animals with longer life spans so they have time to learn, animals with an element of
parental care which involves learning from parents. Living for a part of time with other members of
the species in order to learn from them.…read more