Edexcel History - From Kaiser to Fuhrer: Germany - 1900 - 14

A summarised version of the Edexcel GCE History, From Kaiser to Fuhrer: Germany, 1900 -45, but this section is just the early years of 1900-14. I know how daunting it can be to have a massive history book in front of you, so I have selected the important bits from this chapter, which should nicely present the facts without all the gibberish next to it. :) 

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Unit 1: 2nd Reich 1900-14
Unit 1: 2nd Reich 1900 - 14
June: Second German Naval Law introduced
October: Count Bulow becomes Chancellor
December: Tariff Law introduced
1903: Sickness Insurance Law gives greater help to sick workers
1904: Herero uprising begins in German South West Africa
December: Parliamentary crisis leads to election
January: Reichstag elections see SPD lose votes
December: Law passed restricting hours of factory work
July: Bulow resigns; Von Bethmann ­ Hollweg becomes Chancellor
May: Reform of Alsace Lorraine constitution
January: Reichstag elections
June: Reichstag passes Army and Finance bills increasing size of Armed Forces
December: The Zabern Affair

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Page 2

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Unit 1: 2nd Reich 1900-14
The Constitution:
The constitution was adopted by all the states of Germany ­ Including Prussia, Bavaria,
It defined the ability of each state to govern itself by leave allow the Kaiser/ Emperor/ King
of Prussia control of military matters.
The main aim = to preserve the power of the elite.
Bismarck = author of the Constitution + Germany's first Chancellor.…read more

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Unit 1: 2nd Reich 1900-14
Kaiser Willhelm II
Believed it was Kaiser's responsibility to rule ­ rather than share power with Reichstag.
Poor decision maker, short-attention span, lazy worker
Reliant on military for advice
Had poor opinion of democracy and Reichstag.…read more

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Unit 1: 2nd Reich 1900-14
The Army
Lay outside constitution ­ did not want to limit role.
Huge significance of army in new state.
Not accountable in law to the Reichstag ­ directly accountable to the Kaiser.
Gave advice to Kaiser in appointing the Military Cabinet ( made up of senior military
Military Cabinet advised and chose the General Staff ­ General Staff organised all military
War Minister was part of the General Staff ­ accountable only to the Kaiser and Military
Cabinet.…read more

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Unit 1: 2nd Reich 1900-14
Political Organisations
Despite Reichstag restrictions ­ mass political parties were created.
But Reichstag restrictions - led to creation of other political organisation to represent
different interests.…read more

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Unit 1: 2nd Reich 1900-14
Seats won in the Reichstag 1903 ­ 1912:
Party 1903 1907 1912
Conservatives 54 60 43
Free Conservatives 21 24 14
National Liberals 51 54 45
Liberal Progressives 31 42 42
Centre Party 100 105 91
SPD 63 69 52
What was the extent of German Economic Growth?
The industries of first Industrial Revolution were heavy ­ cotton, coal, iron.
Britain used to dominate these industries.…read more

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Unit 1: 2nd Reich 1900-14
Other Industries:
Zeppelin launched first rigid airship (1900)
Germany played leading part in development of electricity ­ 100,000 electricians (1907) and
Germany held half of Europe's electrical business (1914).
Growth of industries stimulated change of German society
Migration from rural to urban life ­ demographic revolution.…read more

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Unit 1: 2nd Reich 1900-14
Provided pressures that political system needed to resolve
Economic modernisation ­ but lack of political reform and democracy
Frustration from uneven economic growth = rising prices and unemployment (1912 ­ 1914).
Dramatic participation in politics nearing War ­ governing classes had to control these
Socialist Movement:
Industrialisation impacted the Socialist movement.…read more

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Unit 1: 2nd Reich 1900-14
3 Main Pressure Groups that campaign for colonial expansion:
1 ­ The German Colonial League (1882): acquisition of empire and had role in governing
various parts ie German South West Africa.
2 ­ The Pan German League (1890): acquisition of colonies and German dominance of
Europe. Strong support in the Reichstag ­ 60 members in 1914.
3. The Navy League (1898): highly popular. Membership of 1 million. Significant in naval
expansion.…read more

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Unit 1: 2nd Reich 1900-14
Through the creation of protectionism and rallying Germans through following Weltpolitik,
nationalist foreign and colonial policy.
Weltpolitik = world politics
Foreign policy focus ­ to integrate and unite
Weltpolitik ­ building up of armed forces is integral
Flottenpolitik = building the navy
Flottenpolitik (navy building)
People argued that a larger fleet was necessary to protect colonies and for Germany to be
seen as a `Great Power'.
`Risk Strategy' ­ to build big enough fleet to scare others from attacking.…read more


Matt Zara

Love this, cheers Fatine ***


P.S. You want sex? You on meeting?

Dylan Radcliffe

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hi - do you have any revision notes on unit 2


do you have any notes on unit 2?

would be greatly appreciated!!


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