From Kaiser to Fuhrer - Section Overview for Edexcel

WW1, Weimar Republic, Stresemann, The Nazi Party, WW2, The Holocaust etc.

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  • Created on: 14-06-14 11:35
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Controversy 1 ­ Causes of WW1.
1. Alliance System
Triple Entente ­ GB, FRA + RUSS
Dual Alliance ­ GER + AUSHUNG
Made GER Encircled
Maintaining terms of alliances led to further problems e.g. Balkans +
Sarajevo
2. Schlieffen Plan
Aggressive
GER avoid two front war
Revenge on FRA for First Moroccan Crisis, 1905
Go through BELG, into Paris, beat France, then transfer soldiers to
RUSS
3. German Encirclement
Diplomatically isolated from Triple Entente
Could have led to defensive actions
Flottenpolitik, Weltpoltik, First Moroccan Crisis 1905
4. Flottenpolitik
Aim to build navy, that would rival GB and protect growing n.o. of GER
colonies
Bring GB into conflict already there due to Boer War
Direct challenge to GB as GB are the largest naval power
5. Weltpolitik
Aim to get `place in the sun' by owning many colonies ­ becoming
powerful
Imperialism
Bought GER into conflict with FRA in First Moroccan Crisis 1905
6. Innenpolitik
Aim to take focus away from GER domestic issues e.g. rise in working
class and trade unions by putting all focus into international war
Unite GER for a common cause
Shows GER planned for war
GER Aggression
Fischer ­ Linked GER expansionism policy to its domestic problems
7. Balkans Crisis
Decline in OTT Empire
AUSHUNG and RUSS wanted to claim dominance
SERB wanted independence from Habsburg Empire (AUSHUNG)
SERB created Balkans League with other Nationalist Countries (MONT,
BULG)
Conflict escalated due to Alliances RUSS + SERB Vs AUSHUNG + GER
8. First Moroccan Crisis 1905
FRA wanted total control over Morocco to safeguard its position in
Algeria

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Kaiser triggered crisis ­ landed in Tangier to support Moroccan
Independence from FRA
FRA + GER came into conflict ­ referred to in Algeciras Conference 1906
FRA gain substantial control over Moroccan
GER humiliated as it failed to weaken FRA
9. Sarajevo Murder
SERB Nationalist group shot heir to AUSHUNG throne ­ Franz Ferdinand
AUSHUNG wanted revenge
Conflict already was kindled in Balkans
GER gave AUSHUNG the blankcheque to overthrow SERB
10.…read more

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Wanted to overthrow Weimar
KappLuttwitz Putsch, 1920 ­ Group of exmilitary member of Freikorps
refused to disband, demanded elections, seized gov.…read more

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Political division ensure survival as movements could have succeeded
without rivalry
Extremists were also poorly planned not enough sphere of influence
e.g. Nazi party unable to overthrow in Munich Putsch 1923 as they were
easily stopped by army
2. Foreign Policy Successes
International relations poor due to WW1 and Treaty of V
1924 ­ Change in attitudes ­ FRA and GB elect new gov.…read more

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Foreign Policy ­ STABLE
International relations poor due to WW1 and Treaty of V
1924 ­ Change in attitudes ­ FRA and GB elect new gov.…read more

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This highlighted Stresemann ineffectiveness is completely solving GER's
political problems
However due to foreign and economic policy successes, there were no direct
challenges against the government showing successes of Stresemann's
stabilising policies
Reason for the rise of the Nazi Party.
1.…read more

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Hitler portrayed in posters as `strong leader' who would return GER's
glory like that under the Kaiser's reign
Another economic crisis for the Weimar
7. Propaganda
Hitler portrayed as strong leader who would return GER to its roots of
having one leader
Similar to the Kaiser ­ many people wanted the Kaiser back
Undermined Communism, Bolshevism, Jews, Homosexuals, Weimar
Republic etc.
8. Weimar's Weaknesses
Linked to Treaty of V ­ `stab in the back', `diktat' etc.…read more

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Underhand scheming of politician Von Papen who was Chancellor prior to
Hitler and Von Schleicher (Another politician)
Hitler = Leader of largest party but Hindenburg and other parties did
not want him as Chancellor
Thus, Von Papen was appointed but he couldn't get enough support in
Reichstag
Another election took place, Nazis lost seats, but were still largest
party
Von Schleicher was appointed instead
Von Papen and Von Schleicher had personal enmity ­ both attempted to
intrigue Hitler onto their side
Hitler agreed with proposed…read more

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Further represses the Communists
7. `German Labour Front'
Threat from Trade Unions
Hitler abolished all Trade Unions
Merged everyone under guidance of one Nazi Trade Union `German
Labour Front'
Gave Hitler some control over workers ­ substantial for Hitler's power
8. `Law against the Formation of New Parties'
KPD + SPD already banned
Other parties dissolved themselves
GER becomes one party state
9.…read more

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Night of the Long Knives
Removed threat of SA
Used SS to arrest and murder SA members e.g. Rohm
Removes previous political threats
Impact = Hitler was ruthless
Terror ­ People should not question Hitler
3. Hindenburg's Death, Hitler becomes Head of State
Army swear oath of loyalty towards Hitler (Fuhrer)
Hitler is now the sole undisputed leader of GER
What allowed Hitler to consolidate his power?
1.…read more

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