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Controversy 1 ­ Causes of WW1.

1. Alliance System
Triple Entente ­ GB, FRA + RUSS
Dual Alliance ­ GER + AUSHUNG
Made GER Encircled
Maintaining terms of alliances led to further problems e.g. Balkans +
2. Schlieffen Plan
GER avoid two front war
Revenge on FRA for…

Page 2

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Kaiser triggered crisis ­ landed in Tangier to support Moroccan
Independence from FRA
FRA + GER came into conflict ­ referred to in Algeciras Conference 1906
FRA gain substantial control over Moroccan
GER humiliated as it failed to weaken FRA
9. Sarajevo Murder
SERB Nationalist group shot heir to AUSHUNG…

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Wanted to overthrow Weimar
KappLuttwitz Putsch, 1920 ­ Group of exmilitary member of Freikorps
refused to disband, demanded elections, seized gov. district in Berlin
Army willing defend Weimar but Head of Staff refused to fire on their
own people
Workers strike in defence of Weimar & paralyses Berlin ­ KappPutsch…

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Political division ensure survival as movements could have succeeded
without rivalry
Extremists were also poorly planned not enough sphere of influence
e.g. Nazi party unable to overthrow in Munich Putsch 1923 as they were
easily stopped by army
2. Foreign Policy Successes
International relations poor due to WW1 and Treaty…

Page 5

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1. Foreign Policy ­ STABLE
International relations poor due to WW1 and Treaty of V
1924 ­ Change in attitudes ­ FRA and GB elect new gov. who show
positive attitudes towards GER
Opportunity for Stresemann to undo Treaty of V, the same thing that
cause resentment for Weimar

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This highlighted Stresemann ineffectiveness is completely solving GER's
political problems
However due to foreign and economic policy successes, there were no direct
challenges against the government showing successes of Stresemann's
stabilising policies

Reason for the rise of the Nazi Party.

1. Undoing Treaty of Versailles
Cause for resentment against Weimar…

Page 7

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Hitler portrayed in posters as `strong leader' who would return GER's
glory like that under the Kaiser's reign
Another economic crisis for the Weimar
7. Propaganda
Hitler portrayed as strong leader who would return GER to its roots of
having one leader
Similar to the Kaiser ­ many people wanted…

Page 8

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Underhand scheming of politician Von Papen who was Chancellor prior to
Hitler and Von Schleicher (Another politician)
Hitler = Leader of largest party but Hindenburg and other parties did
not want him as Chancellor
Thus, Von Papen was appointed but he couldn't get enough support in
Another election took…

Page 9

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Further represses the Communists
7. `German Labour Front'
Threat from Trade Unions
Hitler abolished all Trade Unions
Merged everyone under guidance of one Nazi Trade Union `German
Labour Front'
Gave Hitler some control over workers ­ substantial for Hitler's power
8. `Law against the Formation of New Parties'
KPD +…

Page 10

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2. Night of the Long Knives
Removed threat of SA
Used SS to arrest and murder SA members e.g. Rohm
Removes previous political threats
Impact = Hitler was ruthless
Terror ­ People should not question Hitler
3. Hindenburg's Death, Hitler becomes Head of State
Army swear oath of loyalty towards…


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