A2 Edexcel History - Causes of World War One

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Causes of WW1

 

Lead up to WW1

·      1879 – Germany signs a defensive alliance with AH

·      1882 – Triple Alliance signed between AH, G and Italy

·      1894 – Alliance between Russia and France

·      Germany wants to expand her world influence. 1894 – Bulow’s “place in the sun” speech.

·      1890 – G doesn’t renew the Re-insurance treaty and this pushes Russia towards France

·      1896 - Kruger Telegram incident (German interference in Boer War) (worsened relations between Britain and Germany)

·      1897 – Welkpolitik announced

·      Failure of talks with Britain

·      Naval laws – 1898, 1900, 1906 & 1912

·      1902 - Anglo Japanese alliance

·      1905 - Schlieffen Plan devised

·      1905 - Moroccan crisis

·      1906 – Dreadnought launched by Britain

·      1907 – Triple Entente Signed

·      1908-9 - Bosnian crisis

·       1911 – Second Moroccan Crisis

·      1912 – War Council meeting

·      1912 – First Balkan War

·      1913 – Second Balkan War

·      1914 - Assassination of Franz Ferdinand

·      July 1914 – Blank Cheque to Austria

Alliance System

·      Bismarck wanted to make Germany a great power

·      Tried to isolate France – signed alliance with I and AH

·      Had a close relationship with Russia up until 1890

·      G tried not to antagonise B

·      Caprivi and new course allowed treaty with Russia to lapse

·      Russia allies herself with France (created war on two fronts)

·      Failure of G to improve relations with B (Kruger Telegram)

·      G in a weak position

Weltpolitik (1897)

·      Wanted German: empire, navy, economic influence

·      Get G’s “place in the sun”

·      Policy used to distract German people from problems within Germany

·      Imperial rivalry

 

 

 

 

Tensions

·      1904 – Russo-Japanese war – weakened Russia’s position

·      1905-6 – First Moroccan Crisis – attempt by Germany to break-up Anglo-French relations. Kaiser to Tangier, gave support to Sultan. At conference – B supported F

·      1908 – Bosnian Crisis – AH annexed Bosnia. Germany backed Austria and G asked R to recognise the annexation which they eventually agreed to do. Was triumph for G, but left R and Slavs upset and embarrassed

·      1911 – Second Moroccan Crisis – G sent gunship to Agadier. F broke off relations with G and B did the same. Led to a compromise over Morocco and Congo

·      1912 - Balkan Crisis. Balkan league attacked Turkey, AH supported Turkey and R supported Slavs. Led to Turkey losing land Serbia doubling in size and Russia gaining victory.

·      1913 – Second Balkan Crisis – Serbia invaded Albania. AH and G ordered withdrawal

War Council 1912

·      Meeting of Navy and Army Chiefs

·      Discussed intentions to fight a…

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