German History, Edexcel, From Kaiser to Fuhrer: Controversy: Unit 7: How popular was the Nazi Regime 1933-39?

This is quite a long chapter from the Edexcel German History Book - summarised it down - hope it helps.

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Unit 7: Controversy: How Popular was the Nazi Regime in the years 1933 ­ 39?
How Popular was the Nazi Regime in the years 1933 ­ 39?
Timeline
1933:
March: Reich Ministry of popular enlightenment and Propaganda created ­ with Goebbels as leader
May: Creation of Women's Front by Robert Ley
May: German Students Association Nazi book burning of `forbidden' authors
May: Sopade, SPD movement in exile, founded
July: Reich Church created
September: Reich Food Estate created
October: Editors Law for `racially pure' journalism
November: Plebiscite to confirm one-party rule in Germany
November: SdA (Beauty of Labour) and KdF (Strength through Joy) set up
1934:
May: SA military exercises suspended
June: Marburg Speech, Night of the Long Knives
July: Govt justifies Night of Long Knives with Law Concerning Measure for the Defence of the State
August: President Hindenburg dies
August: Plebiscite confirms Hitler as his successor and Fuhrer
September: Hjalmar Schacht introduces `New Plan'
1935:
March: Regime makes public its rearmament programme
1936:
June: Himmler placed in overall control of German police
October: Goring put in charge of Office of 4 Year Plan
1937:
November: Schacht resigns as minister of economics
1938:
January: Blomberg-Fritsch Affair
1939:
March: Hitler Youth Law makes membership of Hitler Youth compulsory
September: The Reich Security Head Office (RSHA) founded.

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Unit 7: Controversy: How Popular was the Nazi Regime in the years 1933 ­ 39?
Consent and Consensus
(Nazism 1919-1945; pub 2005)
Regime deployed `formidable apparatus of terror'
But `based on consent from broad sections of population'
Positive image of Hitler portrayed in propaganda
Without success ­ Hitler could not have remained appearing positive
Hitler associated with solving `unemployment problem' and restoration of Germanys
status
(Kershaw; Resistance without the people?; pub 1985)
Consensus existed more than dissent
Consensus with fundamentals of Nazis lasted until deep…read more

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Unit 7: Controversy: How Popular was the Nazi Regime in the years 1933 ­ 39?
Emergency decree = welcomed
Bavarian newspaper: decree `got to the centre of the German disease, the ulcer which
had for years poisoned and infected the German blood, Bolshevism, the deadly enemy
of Germany.…read more

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Unit 7: Controversy: How Popular was the Nazi Regime in the years 1933 ­ 39?
Nazis used violence for Gleichschaltung when necessary
The Use of Propaganda
1933: Goebbel's propaganda very powerful ­ and way of forming Volsgemeinschaft
Propaganda to denigrate opponents, indoctrinate, enforce conformity, project ideology,
convert Germans to regeneration
March 1933: Propaganda ministry was created ­ Goebbels as head
Goebbels quickly seized power of communication
By end of 1933: Nazis had full control of media
June 1933: Association of German Publishers purged of non-Nazis…read more

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Unit 7: Controversy: How Popular was the Nazi Regime in the years 1933 ­ 39?
Immediate purge of `enemies of the nation.'
Wanted stronger fundamental social change (diff. From Hitler) ­ changes did not improve
the standard of living for people.…read more

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Unit 7: Controversy: How Popular was the Nazi Regime in the years 1933 ­ 39?
Hitler had to Act.
Operation Hummingbird ­ Night Of the Long Knives
30th June 1934: Purge = Operation Hummingbird
Aimed at: SA leadership and ensuring conservatives wouldn't prevent Hitler succeeding
Hindenburg
Rumours of SA plot fed to Hitler (mainly by Himmler) ­ Hitler prepared to believe them
Hitler and some SS travelled to Tegernsee (near Munich) and Rohm arrested
200 enemies murdered : incl.…read more

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Unit 7: Controversy: How Popular was the Nazi Regime in the years 1933 ­ 39?
June 1934: SD (leader = Heydrich) reformed under Himmler ­ SD = intelligence arm of SS
to maintain security of Fuhrer, Nazi party and state
SD supposed to be under control of Frick (minister of interior) ­ in fact controlled by
Heydrich and Himmler
June 1936: Himmler = Head of German Police (now controlled Security service and
regular police and SD and Gestapo)
Hitler did this to unite police under…read more

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Unit 7: Controversy: How Popular was the Nazi Regime in the years 1933 ­ 39?
Active counteraction by individuals/groups ­ forbidden factory strike, criticisms from
pulpit
Civil disobedience ­ nonparticipation in Nazi gatherings, refusal to give Hitler salute,
ignoring ban on Jewish/prisoners of war contact
Maintenance of communities outside of Gleichschaltung ­ anti-Hitler Youth groups, church
communities, former-SPD member meeting
Preservation of anti-Nazi principles
[Against Resistenz argument: women wore makeup to look good; indifferent to regime
because indifferent to politics; = inability of Nazis to…read more

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Unit 7: Controversy: How Popular was the Nazi Regime in the years 1933 ­ 39?
Communist infiltrations limited = high level of denunciations
Communists restricted to distribution of anti-Nazi material ­ [ `Red Flag' newspaper
distributed until 1935)
1936: Strikes at Berlin ­ report from Defence Industry Inspector found insubordination
and sabotage
Lack of more overt opposition ­ unsurprising
Working class = been demoralised by unemployment after 1929 ­ and now angered by
abolition of trade unions and arrest of leaders
SPD fled and set…read more

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Unit 7: Controversy: How Popular was the Nazi Regime in the years 1933 ­ 39?
1936: Olympic games ­ successful propaganda ­ Anti Semitism suspended ­ atmosphere
of political stability and prosperity.…read more

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