German History, Edexcel, From Kaiser to Fuhrer: Controversy: Unit 7: How popular was the Nazi Regime 1933-39?

This is quite a long chapter from the Edexcel German History Book - summarised it down - hope it helps.

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Unit 7: Controversy: How Popular was the Nazi Regime in the years 1933 ­ 39?




How Popular was the Nazi Regime in the years 1933 ­ 39?

Timeline
1933:
March: Reich Ministry of popular enlightenment and Propaganda created ­ with Goebbels as leader
May: Creation of Women's Front by Robert…

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Unit 7: Controversy: How Popular was the Nazi Regime in the years 1933 ­ 39?




Consent and Consensus

(Nazism 1919-1945; pub 2005)
Regime deployed `formidable apparatus of terror'
But `based on consent from broad sections of population'
Positive image of Hitler portrayed in propaganda
Without success ­ Hitler could not…

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Unit 7: Controversy: How Popular was the Nazi Regime in the years 1933 ­ 39?




Emergency decree = welcomed
Bavarian newspaper: decree `got to the centre of the German disease, the ulcer which
had for years poisoned and infected the German blood, Bolshevism, the deadly enemy
of Germany.'
Majority of…

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Unit 7: Controversy: How Popular was the Nazi Regime in the years 1933 ­ 39?




Nazis used violence for Gleichschaltung when necessary

The Use of Propaganda

1933: Goebbel's propaganda very powerful ­ and way of forming Volsgemeinschaft
Propaganda to denigrate opponents, indoctrinate, enforce conformity, project ideology,
convert Germans to regeneration…

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Unit 7: Controversy: How Popular was the Nazi Regime in the years 1933 ­ 39?




Immediate purge of `enemies of the nation.'
Wanted stronger fundamental social change (diff. From Hitler) ­ changes did not improve
the standard of living for people.
June 1933: Newspaper: Rohm threatened continued revolution regardless of…

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Unit 7: Controversy: How Popular was the Nazi Regime in the years 1933 ­ 39?




Hitler had to Act.

Operation Hummingbird ­ Night Of the Long Knives

30th June 1934: Purge = Operation Hummingbird
Aimed at: SA leadership and ensuring conservatives wouldn't prevent Hitler succeeding
Hindenburg
Rumours of SA plot…

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Unit 7: Controversy: How Popular was the Nazi Regime in the years 1933 ­ 39?




June 1934: SD (leader = Heydrich) reformed under Himmler ­ SD = intelligence arm of SS
to maintain security of Fuhrer, Nazi party and state
SD supposed to be under control of Frick (minister of…

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Unit 7: Controversy: How Popular was the Nazi Regime in the years 1933 ­ 39?




Active counteraction by individuals/groups ­ forbidden factory strike, criticisms from
pulpit
Civil disobedience ­ nonparticipation in Nazi gatherings, refusal to give Hitler salute,
ignoring ban on Jewish/prisoners of war contact
Maintenance of communities outside of…

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Unit 7: Controversy: How Popular was the Nazi Regime in the years 1933 ­ 39?




Communist infiltrations limited = high level of denunciations
Communists restricted to distribution of anti-Nazi material ­ [ `Red Flag' newspaper
distributed until 1935)
1936: Strikes at Berlin ­ report from Defence Industry Inspector found insubordination…

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Unit 7: Controversy: How Popular was the Nazi Regime in the years 1933 ­ 39?




1936: Olympic games ­ successful propaganda ­ Anti Semitism suspended ­ atmosphere
of political stability and prosperity. Germany appeared civil, tolerant and peaceful
regime
Propaganda aim = get positive or indifferent reaction ­ by weaving…

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