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What is the state? The state is a historical institution; it emerged in fifteenth and sixteenth
century Europe as a system of centralised rule that succeeded in subordinating all other
institutions and groups. The Peace of Westphalia (1648) is usually taken to have
formalised the modern notion of statehood. By establishing states as sovereign entities, it
made states the principal actors of the world stage. International politics thus through of a
"State system".
State development
· The rise of nationalism from the early nineteenth century onwards led to the
creation of the nation-state, which allied the state as a system of centralised rule
to nationhood as a source of social cohesion and political legitimacy.
· For the twentieth century, the state was characterised by it expanding social and
economic role. The most extreme example of this was the development of
collectivised states, which attempted to bring the entirety of economic life under
state control. The best examples of such states were in orthodoz communist
countries such as the Soviet Union and throughout Eastern Europe.
Approaches to the state
NEOREALIST- They insist that states differ only in terms of their "capabilities" or
power resources. All realists nevertheless agree that the state is the dominant
global actor; hence they adopt a state centric view of global politics
Deontological & Teleological Ethics
LIBERAL- They believe that the state arises out of the needs of society and
reflects the interest of individual citizens. The core role of the state is thus to
ensure order by arbitrating between the competing individuals and groups in
society.…read more

Slide 2

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What is sovereignty? Sovereignty was established from the Treaty of Westphalia
1648. Sovereignty is the central concept for power within a nation state. If a nation
state has sovereignty they are recognised by the international community and they
can make decisions and policies without interference from outside forces.
Is sovereignty important?
According to Realism, governments will only base decisions on the security and needs of the
nation state, not based on an international consensus. This implies that states are still
dominant and exercise power in a way and to an extent that no other actor can allowing their
territories to be rarely challenged. Only a tiny proportion of states, those classified as "weak"
states that have effectively lost control over what happens within their border.
However, state borders are permeable in that they have increasingly been penetrated by
external forces. This includes the movement of knowledge and info via the internet. Global
financial markets and transnational capital flows mean that economic sovereignty has become
redundant. Therefore, with the permable borders, states are no longer meaningful terroritoral
The advantage of political globalisation and the emergence of a framework of global
governance have not brought about an arosion of sovereignty. Rather, they expand the
opportunities available to states, particularly for achieving the benefits of cooperation. By
states working together in international organisations they are able to pool their sovereignty,
gaining greater influence than they would if working alone.
In modern circumstances, states are increasingly confronted by collective decisions. An
increasing range of issues have acquired a collective or even character on issues such as the
climate change, terrorism and pandemic diseases. Only international organisations, not
supposedly sovereign states, can tackle these.
There seems little likelihood that states Deontological & Teleological
will lose their dominance Ethics
so long as they continue to
enjoy the allegiance of the mass of their citizens. As most states are nation-states, this is
ensured by the survival of nationalism as the world's most potent ideological force.
Respect for state sovereignty has been eroded by the growing belief that there are standard of
conduct to which all states should conform as far as the treatment of their domestic
populations is concerned. For example; Human rights and the idea that the fundamental rights
are morally superior to the state's rights to the independence and autonomy.
With this knowledge, try to answer This 15 marker: Why is sovereignty now
widely viewed as an outdated concept?…read more

Slide 3

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There are two types of sovereignty you need to know in your exam. This is internal
sovereignty and external sovereignty.
Internal Sovereignty
· Internal sovereignty includes the recognition that goes on within a state.
· Internal sovereignty illustrates the right to conduct domestic policy freely from
any external influence. Additionally, it also concerns where sovereignty lies
within a state. This could be with the people, as in a democracy or with an
individual, or even through the case of an autocratic dictatorship. However, by
states becoming more interconnected, liberalist would argue that internal
sovereignty is lost. This is due to the clear external influence in state's domestic
affairs. This is seen, prominently through economic affairs, such as the economic
crisis and the rise of global economic governance organisations
External Sovereignty
· External sovereignty is the way in which the state operates
· external sovereignty is seen to be very important within organisations
such as the UN, as the rights and protection of the state sovereignty is
seen as important whilst dealing with other states. However, in recent
years, with the development of the R2P, in 2005, sovereignty is seen
to be lost if the regime in power is seen harming its citizens. An
example of this can be shown by NATO's intervention in Libya.
Although, as realists would point out, in the case of Syria, intervention
violates external sovereignty- with both parties recognising that events
in Syria must take their course.
With this knowledge , try to answer this 15 marker: Explain the difference
between external sovereignty and internal sovereignty (15) Remember to use
knowledge AND ANALYSIS…read more

Slide 4

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What is it? Globalisation is the emergence of a complex web of
interconnectedness that means that our lives are increasingly shaped by events
that occur, and decisions that are made, at a great distance from us
Types of Globalisation
There are three main types of globalisation; Economic, Political and Cultural;
ECONOMIC- A shift from a world of distinct national economy in which production
is internationalised and financial capital flows freely and instantly between
countries. Leads to intensified interdependence between national economies.
Advantages of Economic globalisation:
Hyper- globalist such as johan Nurburg and Thomas Friedman argue that
economic globalisation has universally benefitted all those who have taken
advantage of it, as it creates greater wealth through free trade, the free market
and global capital markets.
One could argue that Economic globalisation promotes prosperity and
opportunity for all. Firsty, economic globalisation does not just make societies
richer, social mobility increases as people are able to take advantage of wider
working, career and educational opportunites. Secondly, from an economic
liberal perspective, the market is the only reliable means of generating wealth,
the surest guarantee of prosperity and economic opportunity.
However, Globalisation sceptics like Amy Chua argue that Economic
globalisation has in fact increased poverty in developing countries. This means
she believes that economic globalisation creates greater inequality of wealth.
Economic globalisation diminishes the influence of national governments and
therefore restricts public accountability. State policy is driven instead by the
need to attract inward investments and the pressures generated by intensifying
international competition.
With this knowledge and you own knowledge of critical theories , try to answer this
45 mark question: "Economic globalisation benefits the few rather than the many"
Discuss. REMEMBER : structure it as KNOWLEDGE, ANALYSIS, SYNOPSIS…read more

Slide 5

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Political Globalisation
POLITICAL- This refers to the growing importance of international organisation that
are transnational ( exert influence not within individual states but internationally)
Impacts very whether institutions are intergovernmental or supranational.
Political globalisation opens up opportunities for the state. Working through international
organisations and regimes may expand the capabilities of the state, allowing them to continue to
extend their influence within a globalised and interconnected world.
Political globalisation is often seen as a means of managing or regulating economic globalisation.
However, political globalisation could legitimately be understood to refer to the global spread of
political ideas (human rights) or of political structures (liberal democracy)
International bodies such as the United Nations and The European Union, NATO and the WTO
have undermined the capacity of states to operate as self-governing units. For example; it is clear
that membership of the EU threatens state power, because a growing range of decisions are
made by European institutions rather than by member states
Cultural Globalisation
CULTURAL-The process whereby information, commodities and images that have
been produced in one part of the world enter into a global flow that tends to "fatten out"
cultural differences, potential for homogenisation which could create a cultural
It reflects the rise of individualism, an emphasis on technocratic rationalism, and the development
of the doctrine of human rights into a cosmopolitan political creed.
that this new widespread cultural awareness could help reduce discrimination and might even
smooth international relations as a whole. As people of diverse backgrounds communicate more
freely and enjoy many of the same trends.
The critics of cultural globalization often argue against its destructive effects on national
identities. They warn that unique cultural entities may vanish, and that languages spoken
by small populations could be at an increased risk of extinction.
With this knowledge answer the two following 15 markers: explain the difference
between political and economic globalisation. What is cultural globalisation and
explain why is it controversial? (15)…read more

Slide 6

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For or against globalisation?
Pro Globalisation
Liberals adopt a consistently positive attitude towards globalisation. For economic
liberals, globalisation reflects the victory of the market over "irrational" national
allegiances and "arbitrary " state borders.
Politically, liberals state that globalisation marks a watershed in world history, in
that it ends the period during which nation-state was the dominant global actor,
world order being determined by an (inheritably unstable) balance of power.
One could argue that globalisation undoubtedly helps and benefits LEDCs. For
example; between 1991-2002 an enormous $2.1 trillion has been invested in
LEDCs because of globalisation, and sub Saharan Africa is now enjoying a flat
economic growth rate of 6% ( larger than many western nation own GDP levels
Con Globalisation
· Realists state that economic globalisation intensifies economic independence rather than
the creation of an unlocking global economy
· Critical theorists argue that the winners are TNCs and industrially advanced states generally, but
particularly the USA, while the losers are in the developing world, where wages are low,
regulation is weak or non-existent, and where production is increasingly orientated around global
markets rather than domestic needs Therefore is a form of neo-colonialism it forces poor
countries to open up their markets and allow their resources to be plundered by rich states.
· Kofi Ahhan states " if globalisation doesn't benefit everyone then it is not working"
· Cultural Globalisation could affect specific values such as, traditions and history -- the identity --
of a culture and could make them disappear. They fear the threat of dominant, industrialized
cultures (such as Americanisation)overtaking and supplanting indigenous ones, silencing new
and different ideas. Critics also warn that vast multinational companies could make secret deals
without popular input or concern for the best interests of local populations.
With this knowledge, you can answer 45 mark questions on globalisation with
synopsise. However, remember to comment on this idea and the effectiveness of
them or evidence to back it up.…read more

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Thank you, sorry for all the grammatical errors that I've made :S I hope it helps and good luck with your exams!


thank you if you have any more resources please do not hesitate to upload them or any links I need all the help I can get 

Emma L

you life saver!!!


have you done anything similar of this for unit 4D?? Would be a huge help


Probably a bit late but its on my resources if you haven't already found it. Glad it helps and hope the exam tomorrow is nice! :S 


genuinely got me through the 2 exams considering there was no revision books or anything, cant thank you enough


hey I can't find your 4d PowerPoint for this would you please be kind enough to post it to me @ [email protected]


omg literally I wanna cry!!! literally thank you for this sooooooo much


omg literally I wanna cry!!! literally thank you for this sooooooo much






I cant download the powerpoint!! Could someone help?

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