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Exam on 10/06/13 :D…read more

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EU Integration
· Denmark, Ireland and UK all join in 1973.
· 1979 European Monetary System whereby coordinating exchange rates. (Ratio of one currency
against another) UK opt out.
· 1979 EP is now directly elected rather than being appointed by national governments
· 1986 ­ European flag.
· 1987 - Also the Single European Act
· 1992 ­ Maastricht treaty formally changes name to the European Community to the European
· 1995 Schengen Convention
· 1998 ­ Establish a ECB.
· 1999 ­ Euro established in 11 member states
· 2000 ­ Charter of Fundamental rights. Non legally binding and sets out civil, political and
economic rights of citizens of the EU.
· 2001 ­ Nice Treaty. Includes enhanced cooperation.
· 2004 ­ Enlargement of 10 new countries.
· 2007 Lisbon Treaty…read more

Slide 3

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Staying in the EU
Bigger on a global scale
- This means dealing more effectively with issues such as global warming. And stability as one unit
against non- EU countries or external threats.
- Encourages democracy and human rights
- To join the EU you must comply with the Copenhagen criteria which is good for democracy.
- Economic benefits
- The single market and free trade within 27 countries. With the UK, more than half of our trade
comes from the EU.
- Prevents WW3
- Integrating on areas and working together will prevent further ways as the countries will not want
to damage themselves in the process.…read more

Slide 4

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Leaving the EU
· Would retain our soveignty.
· Able to make our own laws again without having to enforce ones which do not benefit us and
without having to accept 80,000 new legislation from the EU.
· EU is a undemocratic body
· Undemocratic and serves no use to the UK. The body makes decisions without being accountable
to the people.
· Expensive
· UK have been seen to give money which is not beneficial directly to us. Expense of policies such
as CAP. EU promotes a more inflexible labour market which is bad for GDP growth which was
about half of USA's GDP growth in 2010.
We would not suffer economic worries instead we would benefit. No longer have to spend money on
policies which don't favour us e.g. the CAP also with the trade issue the UK could just join the
EFTA such as the current members E.g. Norway.…read more

Slide 5

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· . EP is directly elected by the people. Consists of accountable MEP's. Elections take place
every 5 years with the electoral system of PR. Ev. Last election held in 2009 and the UK has 72
· Other forms of indirect accountability from Council of Ministers and European Council which
consists of heads of all EU national governments. When voting differently you are changing the
views present in these meetings which is an important impact since each national government has
an effective veto.
· Directly involving citizens in the process of the EU through Citizens Initiative as this link
between citizen and EU has weakened. This form of internet voting requires one million
signatures from a majority of the member states.
· National governments have more power through the Lisbon treaty. This introduced yellow and
orange cards which lets national governments review to see if it enforces the subsidiary principle.
They can do this within 8 weeks of it being given to them.…read more

Slide 6

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· Full of lots of unelected people. The Council of Ministers and EC are not directly elected
therefore lacking accountability. The EC initiates laws but has no accountability whatsoever and is
not elected by the people. The EP being the only accountable body since it is elected is weak and
has little control over EU areas and legislation. The EC is also only accountable to Parliament as
a whole, Parliament is unable to remove individual Commissioners.
· The EP has very low turnout. Since the Lisbon treaty and the increase of their powers turnout is
only further decreasing. This turnout is getting to less than 50% which means the EP does not
truly have a mandate. This could be due to the EP's limited role or due to the link of citizens with
the EU.
· People have lost touch with the EU and are not aware of EU political processes and issues
which DO affect them!! It lacks transparency and education. Transparency of meetings is still
present even after Lisbon Treaty. It occurs in the Council of Ministers which means other
institutions such as the EP cant scrutinize them effectively and it mean EU citizens are not aware
of who's made the decisions therefore they cant hold them to account.…read more

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