US ELECTIONS - UNIT 3C EDEXCEL.

These are my notes on american elections. Mostly from Storey's blue book, but as he's the chief examiner they should be good! May be some spelling/grammar mistakes as it hasn't been checked. 

Covers most of the sub-topics within elections.

For A2 Edexcel Government and Politics, hope it helps :) 

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Page 1 of 19
US politics Elections
By2
008, t
herew
e r
e4
2A fr
icanA
mer
icansi
nt
heH
ouseo
f
Repr
esent
ati
ves,
but
onl
yo
ne
(
Barack
O bama)
,
in
the
Senat
e.
Af
ri
canA meri
cansh
a dah
i st
oryo
f di
scr
iminat
ioni
nt
heU
n i
tedS
tat
es.
In2
0 05,
Georgi
a
passed
a st
ate
law r
equi
ri
ng
cit
izens
to
use
government
i
ssuedID when
vot
ing.
However
:
Car
ow nershi
p i
s si
gni
fi
cantl
y l
ower
amongst
Afr
ican
Amer
icans.
Ther
e
is
no DMV of
fi
ce
w i
thi
n 9
mil
es
of
Atl
anta.
th
The2
6 amendme nt
tot
heC
onsti
tut
ionl
oweredt
hev
oti
nga
get
o1
8b
ecauset
hea
ver
age
age
of
so l
dier
s f
ight
ing
in
Sout
h East
Asi
a at
t
he t
ime
w as
19.
Recalls
Recal
lsa
rep
ermit
tedi
n2
6s t
ates.
Bef
o r
et
hev
o t
ei
sh
e l
d, si
gnatur
eso
f r
egist
eredv
ot
ers
(
usual
ly
around
25% of
the
vot
es
cast
in
the
previ
ous
elect
ion)
have
to
be
coll
ect
ed .
Gover
norr
e cal
l i
n2
0 03 thei
ncumbent
governor
of
C al
if
orni
a,
G r
ayD
avi
sw
as
r
epl
aced
in
a r
ecall
el
ect
ion
by
A r
nold
Schwarzenegger
.
Initiatives
St
ate
const
it
uti
ons
are
amended
fr
equent
ly
thr
ough
ini
ti
ati
ves.
I
nC
o loradoi
n2
008,
t
her
ew
er
e1
4p
r
oposeda
mendment
st
ot
hec
onst
it
uti
onf
or
t
he
publ
ic
to
vote
on.
I
n 23
stat
es
and
Washi
ngt
on
D C,
vot
ers
can
vot
e on
ini
ti
ati
ves
and
proposi
ti
ons.
2008:
Proposi
ti
on
8 i
n Cal
if
orni
a made
gay
mar
ri
age
agai
nst
st
ate
law.
Congressional Elections
Congr
ess
ional
el
ect
ions
use
the
FPTP
elect
oral
syst
em
and
are
on
fi
xed
ter
ms.
St
atesa
rer
unb
yah
e ado
f
gover
nme nt
,
theg
overnor
andas
t
atel
egi
sl
a t
urew
hich,
i
nal
l
but
one
stat
e,
has
a di
rect
equi
val
ent
t
o t
he House
of
R epr
esentat
iv
e s
and t
he Senat
e.
Nebr
aska
is
the
onl
y st
ate
to
have
a si
ngl
e chamber
assembl
y.
TheC
o nst
i
tut
iong
avet
heH
o useo
f Repr
esentati
vesp
ri
ma r
yr
e sponsi
bil
i
tyf
or
rai
si
ngt
axes
andd
ecidi
ngh
o w f
ederal
f
undss
h oul
db
es
p ent
. Housee
lect
ionsa
ree
v eryt
woy
earsi
n
or
der
to
keep
the
stat
e r
epresent
ati
ves
account
able
for
t
heir
act
ions.
Senator
ss
e rve 6 year
s terms,a
llowing t
hem t
o consi
d erl
ong t
erm consequenceso
f
c
o ngr
essional
deci
si
ons.
A l
l
stat
esh
a vet
wos
e nat
ors.
Athir
do
f
senator
s ar
eu
pf
or el
ect
ion
ever
y2
y
e ar
s.T
h i
s ensures t
hate
v en in t
he evento
fat
i dal
waveo
fo
pini
on,s
ome
exper
ienced
senator
s st
i
ll
r
ema in
in
C ongr
ess.

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I
nt
hee
v ent
of
adeat
h,
thes
t
ateg
over
nor
nomi
nat
esar
epl
acement
senat
or
unt
il
aspeci
al
el
ect
i
o n
is
held.
I
n 2000,w
h en MelC
a r
naha n wask
ill
ed i
n a pl
anec
r
ash,h
isw
i
fe,J
e an,w
a s
nomi
nat
ed
to
repr
esent
Missour
i
in
the
senat
e.…read more

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bal
lot
pa pe rs,
onef
or
ea cho
f t
h et
woma
inp
a rti
es.
V ot
ersmu
s t
t
hend e ci
dew
h i
ch
part
y'sp
r i
ma ryt
h eyw i sht
ov
o tei
na
n dr
e t
urnt
heo
t her
ball
ot paper.
Tw ent
ys
tates
use t
his f
o rm of
pri
ma ry.…read more

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I
nt
hec
aseo
f
openp
r i
ma r
ies,
t
herei
stheo
pp or
tuni
ty
for
`r
aidi
ng'
by support
ers
ofone
par
ty
w ho
cross
over
and vote
for
a
w eak
candidat
e of
the
o t
her
party.…read more

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Page 5 of 19
The National Conventions:
Eachp
a r
tyh
oldsan
a t
ional
convent
ioni
nthes
ummer
ofeachp
resi
denti
al
el
ect
iony
ear
, wi
th
t
heD
e mocrat
su
s uall
yh
o l
dingt
heirc
o nventi
onb
ef
oret
heR
e pub l
i
cans.…read more

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Page 6 of 19
mainp
a r
ti
es),
eachn
o mineew
il
l
at
tempt
t
od ef
inet
hemsel
ves,
thei
r
opponent
andt
he
key
issues
in
w ays
that
gi
ve t
hem an
advant
age ahead
of
the
autumn.
The Electoral College:
Therea
re5
3 8E
lector
al
C ol
legev
otesa
nds
ot
ow
i n,
ac andi
dat
emu
s t
gaino
ver
27 0v
otes.…read more

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o D ispr
o por
tionat
ei
nfl
uencema
ya r i
seb
e causea ll
statesmu
s t havea
t
least
t
hree E lect
oralC
o l
lege v ot
es,ma
k ing sma ll
ers
t ates ove r
represent
ed
comp ar
edt ol
arger ones.…read more

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Page 8 of 19
ap
eri
odo
f
a bout
four
w eeks,
eachf
ocusingo
nad
i f
fer
e nt
ar
e ao
f
p ol
icy
(sucha
s
the
economyo
rf
o rei
gn poli
cy),a
n do
n ed
e ba t
eb
e twe env
ice presi
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ial
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i
ncumben t
su
suall
y
h aveas
igni
fi
cant
advant
agei
nfundr
aisi
ng,
r
educi
ngt
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ihood
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