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Pressure groups fact sheet
Pluralism ­ a theory which suggests that political power in a society does not rest simply with the electorate, nor
with the governing elite, but is distributed amongst a number of groups representing widely different interests
within society
Elitism ­ a theory which suggests that political…

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3. Enhance public education ­ public can be educated on policy issues, effect of them being ignored or
implemented. Jeffrey Berry and Clyde Wilcox commented that:

With their advocacy efforts, publications and publicity campaigns, pressure groups can make people better
aware of both policy problems and proposed solutions

4. Agenda…

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For example if you are an avid bird watcher you may join the National Audubon Society, not so much to preserve
wetlands or other bird habitats, but more to join the local chapter. In Virginia for example you could join one of
the six local chapters that range geographically, in…

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questions to these candidates, all relating to the interest of senior citizens and Kissels all 10 of Kissels
responses were identical to AARP's position whilst Hayes position on all 10 questions were not. The
Republican incumbent lost to his Democrat challenger -45% to 55%

Top 5 pressure groups in competitive…

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When the Food and Drug Administration announced plans to ban saccharin due to possible links with cancer, the
Calorie Control Council which has close links with Coca Cola ran an advertisement campaign denouncing the
proposal Public policy journals whose circulation includes all members of Congress, senior staff at the White…

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State politicians decide which behaviours to criminalise ­ for example in Massachusetts they decided to
legalise gay marriage which resulted in the group known as Article 8 Alliance, a grassroots group founded to
fight marriage, wanted to remove the judges who allowed the ruling.
The National Organization for Marriage (NOM)…

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The impact of pressure groups on issues
The total federal lobbying revenue in 2007 amounted to just short of $3 billion. This sum includes only that
income which must be disclosed under federal law. On top of that clients spend at least hundreds of millions
of dollars more on grassroots…

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o 2005 Club legal victory forces Bush administration to abandon plans for a logging project on
the Grand Canyon's north rim. Club holds first-ever Sierra Summit -- a national convention
and exposition.
o 2006 Club lawsuit succeeds in protecting Giant Sequoia National Monument from Bush
administration plan to allow commercial…

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One lobbyist commented
`You have to start at the bottom. You have to start at the sub committee level. If you wait until the bill
gets to the floor of the House or the Senate, your efforts will seldom work'
Because the membership of congressional committees is relatively small (16…

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that the 1996 Communication Decency Act which was unconstitutional, thereby overturning Congress'
attempt to ban pornography on the internet
In 2005 the ACLU brought the McCreary v. ACLU case to the court which ruled that the display of the 10
commandments in a Kentucky courthouse was unconstitutional
In 2007 Parents…

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