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Competition for coasts
Why is the coastal zone attractive to developers?
Coasts traditionally attracted settlement
European countries built around natural ports for trade
Australia and USA inhabitants mostly live around coastal regions
In developing countries-coastal migration fuelled by new employment
Western economies retirement and tourism are the major drivers
Coastalisation: means the movement of people to coastal areas more
homes, services and jobs required. In attractive areas, can lead to conflict
too much development can spoil the location. Coastalisation is happening
in many coastal regions, such as Australia, Florida and Spain; Also in the UK.
Australia is the most urbanised country in the world; 90% of the
population live in urban settlements, and 60% live in the 5 largest
cities-all of which are located on the coast.
Rainfall is also much greater near the coast, so most farming occurs
within 300-400km of the coastline.
Four main reasons for the movement of so many people to the
1. Recent droughts have made farming in Australia very difficult, and
young people are leaving the land to work in service jobs on the
coast e.g. in tourism
2. New immigrants usually move straight to one of the coastal
3. Coastal towns offer an outdoors lifestyle, as well as urban
attractions e.g. culture, restaurants, theatre.
4. House prices are cheaper in smaller coastal towns. Young families
often choose to move there.
Can Australia provide food and water for itself without harming the
environment. The country is huge-the amount of available freshwater and
good farmland is not.
75% of people in Florida live along the coast, and the coastal population is
increasing rapidly. The value of property along the Florida coast is
estimated to be $1.9 trillion. The greatest number of inward migrants
consists of families and retired people moving from northern US cities to
Florida's warm climate.
But population growth comes at a cost:
Wetland area has already shrunk by 80%-freshwater problems for
residents in future years.
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Florida lies less than 2metres above sea level-regularly
experiences hurricanes-major problem along with coastal
flooding-damage costs rising.
How can these problems be managed...?
Coping with the pressure
Until demand begins to exceed supply, the competition is usually resolved
by sharing out land among competing users. Activities such as tourism,
heavy industry, agriculture and fishing typically compete for coastal space.
The intensity of the demand for coastal space puts particular pressure on
the natural environments.…read more
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Risk from coastal erosion and flooding cause some social, economic and
environmental impacts on coastal areas, further increasing the risk. There
are three different situations to bear in mind:
1. Rapid erosion
2. Increased flooding
3. tidal waves
Maybe look into the Holderness coastline for extra info
Hard-engineering management: Involves building some type of sea
defence, usually from rocks or concrete.…read more
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Coastal management is based on whether the threat is from erosion or
flooding. In developing shoreline management plan, hour broad options
them become available:
1. do nothing
2. retreat the line
3. hold the line
4. advance the line
Look at different management strategies in place along start bay.…read more