Geography Coast Revision

Coastalisation, Coastal development, & Coastal Management. Engineering techniques and stakeholders. Case Studies that you will need. Spectrum of Coastal management. Hold the line/Advance the Line 

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  • Created on: 21-01-12 16:22
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Types of coast
1. Trade Coast- a coast with good transport links e.g. a port that imports and exports things.
2. Recreational Coast- A coast that is used for leisure
3. Residential Coast- a coast where people live.
4. Resource Coast- a coast that is used for mass production
Estuary: Flooded lower course of a river valley, where the mixing of fresh and salt water happens,
due to different densities. They provide sheltered environments where deposition of fine river
sediment occurs. They are controlled by tidal and non tidal currents.
Salt Marshes: Form in the more sheltered parts of estuaries. E.g. behind spits. This is because the
high tide deposits sediment where the the velocity decreases. Salt marshes are very fertile
ecosystems, and important feeding grounds
Mangroves: Composed of low trees and shrubs with dense root systems that grow in swampy,
muddy waters in tidal zones between tropical sea and land. Mangroves filter out sediment that
harms the coral reef, and the coral absorbs energy that would have the mangroves. Coral Reef
makes up 0.1% of the oceans, and 25% of marine life. If climate change continues to happen, coral
is under threat from coral bleaching from more acidic waters.
Sand Dunes: Wide low gradient beaches with strong onshore winds and obstacles such as
driftwood or vegetation form sand dunes.
The coast of Spain increases by 1.2% per year due to migration. On Mediterranean coast, 65% of it
is urbanised. Concerns: What will happen to Biodiversity? Is there enough water? Is this causing
conflict, due to too much pressure on the land?
75% of people live on the coast in Florida, It has pleasant weather and sandy beaches, with good
accessibility. It is known as the Sunshine State. Florida is in a peninsula shape, meaning that
everywhere is close to the coast. Concerns: 80% of the Everglades Wetland has been lost. 9% of
Florida lies less than 2m above sea level. Water Shortages?
90% live in urban areas in Australia. On the coast there is 5 big cities where you can find good
schools, cheap housing, and promising business opportunities. Concerns: Great Barrier Reef is
under threat from coral bleaching, Lack of freshwater and farmland. Unsure whether it is
sustainable to provide food and water to all

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Crowded Coasts
Benidorm's population has grown ridiculously since 1960 when it had 6,200 people, to now when
it has over 500,000 people in summer. Benidorm has lovely climate, plenty of flat land, it is
accessible, natural bay, with a sheltered harbour. Unregulated planning means that there is plenty
of business and job opportunities. Concerns: Pollution, Litter, Bad image; Lager Louts, Water
Shortages and decrease in biodiversity, low paid seasonal jobs, migration of OAPs.…read more

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Holderness Coast
The Holderness is 61km long and the fastest eroding coastline in Europe, caused by hydraulic
action from the sea. It erodes so quickly because of the weak geology and cliff morphology. Also
the power of the waves is so strong (due to the long fetch from the Arctic Ocean), these destructive
waves also carry material that causes the cliffs to erode The average rate of erosion is 1.8m a year,
the narrow beaches are less likely to protect the cliffs.…read more

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Hornsea to protect the caravan sites. Easington gas terminal is also
protected by revetment. The problem with hard engineering is that it can cause problems further
down drift. E.g. the cliffs south of Mappleton have increased erosion and the Cowden Farm is now
at increased risk.
Soft Engineering:
Soft engineering involves coaxing natural processes along. E.g. beach nourishment. These soft
schemes are cheaper and require less time, therefore more sustainable. They integrate with the
natural environment and provides habitats for coastal plants and animals.…read more


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