AS Geography Edexcel- Unit 2 (Crowded Coasts) Revision Notes with case studies

Case studies for corwded coasts, with key words list. 

Includes Holderness 

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  • Created by: Amrita
  • Created on: 25-05-13 10:38
Preview of AS Geography Edexcel- Unit 2 (Crowded Coasts) Revision Notes with case studies

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Crowded Coasts
What are the characteristics of a crowded coast?
Entertainment.
High population density.
Over developed settlement. No space for new development.
Water activity.
Trade on coast front.
A thriving economy.
Pier?
Natural ecosystems can be destroyed or disrupted.
Excellent transport links.
Presence of coast defences (if there is need) in good condition.
Un-natural looking.
Foot path erosion.
CBD moves from the sea-front inwards.
Land prices most expensive near the sea front. Skyscrapers.
Attractive scenery.
Buildings on sea front.
Wide beach front.
Clean blue sea.
Sandy beach.
Warm climate.
Fact
3 billion people live within 100km of the coast.
Why do coastlines vary?
Climate.
Rock type.
Fetch of waves.
Constructive & destructive waves.
Coastal type.
Presence of a beach.
Presence of coastal defences.
Human activity/settlements.
Erosion.
Tidal range.
Prevailing wind.
Bournemouth
Where?

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South West UK
County ­Dorset
Dorset's largest City
Rapid population growth
1815 ­ 695 People
2001 163,000 People
Reason not natural increase because the birth rate is lower than the death
rate because it has an aging population
Reason for rapid population growth is inward migration of old people over 50
years
Railway systems in Victorian period led to growth ­for holiday's people began
to visit seaside resorts
1888 Pier was built to attract more people
Easy Jet and Ryan air make it easier to…read more

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Geotextile bags filled with sand, forces waves to break out at sea with greater
height ­ 4m high
Completed in 2008 cost - £1.4 million
Attracts 10,000 surfers a year
Surfers spend 8% more than other tourists
£10million earned annually
Southampton Waters
Form one of the UK's best natural harbours
It is well sheltered from the surges and storms in the English Channel.
There is a deep-water channel for large ships
The land is cheap and around the estuary there is area for development.…read more

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Ecologically important-contains a large amount of species.
Economically important- bed for oyster and shellfish
Sewage-discharges 300 million litres of treated sewage waste. As the population
increases so does the amount of sewage. It can be dangerous if not treated.
Eutrophication-the artificial enrichment of water by sewage, fertilisers etc.
It causes algae to bloom.
Sunlight is blocked.
Water becomes anoxic (deficient in oxygen) and as deadly bacteria grows
preventing fish and other aquatic life to respire and so they will die.…read more

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Reasons for support: Reasons for opposition:
+National need for more container capacity. -Threat to designated environmental areas.
+It is placed well for transatlantic container traffic. -More environmental damage would be necessary
+More jobs (e.g. short-term) and long-term when the to accommodate the container ships.
port is fully operational. -Risk of an increased oil spills.
+Increased efficiency. -Proximity to the New Forest National Park.
+Beneficial knock-on effect in marine industries. -Habitat loss.
+Positive multiplier effects.…read more

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Used where expensive sea walls aren't needed, ramp of rock or sand covered
with geotextile. On top concrete slabs are placed.…read more

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Fastest eroding coastline in Europe ­ avg, nearly 2m coastline eroded
each year
Since Roman times ­ 4km eroded and 29 villages lost
GET MAP AND ANNOTATE REST OF PARAGRAPH
So, the coast is eroding ...…read more

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Cliff-erosion processes
Two types:
o Cliff foot ­ caused by wave action at base ­ cause cliff to
undercut & collapse
Abrasion/Corrasion ­ waves pick-up sand, pebbles from
sea bed as they break they are hurled at cliff and chip
away at the base
Hydraulic Action ­ swashes trap air in cracks in cliff ­
increasing air pressure ­ they retreat air explodes
weakens cracks and breaks away
Corrosion ­ cliffs made out of alkalis (chalk, limestone)
can be dissolved by weak acids in sea…read more

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Built to protect gas terminal
o Absorbs wave energy using large air spaces between boulders
o Expensive and unattractive but long lasting
Sea walls at Withernsea
o Usually built at coastal resorts - either straight or recurved
Straight ­ reflect wave energy out to sea - form barrier to
prevent undercutting ­ built in 1875 ­ protects holiday
resort and acts as a promenade for tourists ­ over time,
wave energy scoured base of wall ­ undercut - collapsed
Recurved ­ dissipate some of the…read more

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Residents agree to demolish existing home & build home - no bigger
than previous one ­ in return ­ receive help with costs
Farm buildings and farm houses ­ can still be built in rural areas ­ must
be used for farming and not sold for other purposes
Integrated coastal management
Sections of coast managed as a whole rather than by individual
villages/towns
Acting in one place ­ affects another part of the coastline ­ sediment
moves along coast in sediment cells ­ sediment moves…read more

Comments

alice.osborne

This is amazing. Huge help! thank you

katrinarodriguess

omg thank you so much!!!!!

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