Core Biology - Defense against disease AQA

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  • Created on: 29-05-13 13:35
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Microorganisms ­ Bacteria - Viruses -Fungi
BACTERIUM PRODUCES TOXINS
VIRUSES INFECT HOST CELL, REPRODUCE INSIDE THEN BREAK THE CELL AND INVADE
WHITE BLOOD CELLS INGEST PATHOGENS, PRODUCE ANTIBODIES AND PRODUCE ANTITOXINS
Ingesting pathogens
1) The bacteria goes towards the white blood cell
2) The white blood cell engulfs the bacteria
3) The white blood cell release enzymes that can digest the pathogens
Producing antibodies
1) Bacteria is inside the body and it has antigens
2) White blood cells recognises the bacteria and release antibodies
3) The antibodies lock on to the antigens
Producing antitoxins
1) The bacteria releases toxins
2) The white blood cells release antitoxins
3) The antitoxins counteract the toxins
VACCINATION
1) Injecting a dead or inactive pathogen
2) The white blood cell produce antibodies
3) The person becomes immune
IF THEY WERE TO GET THE SAME PATHOGEN INTO THE BODY, THE WHITE BLOOD CELL WILL
RECOGNISE IT AND PRODUCE ANTIBODIES ORE QUICKLY.
IGNAZ SEMMELWEIS
1) Medical student delivering babies after working on dead bodies
2) This causes number of deaths
3) Ignaz says wash your hands
4) Low number of deaths
THEY DID NOT KNOW WHAT BACTERIA WAS AT THE TIME.
PAIN KILLERS ­ relieve symptoms but still have the pathogens inside the body
ANTIBIOTICS ­ kill the pathogens and make you feel better

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ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
1) Taken too many antibiotics
2) Bacterium has developed antibiotic resistance
3) This is because of a mutation in the DNA (random spontaneous change which affects the
genes)
4) The bacteria reproduce
5) Scientists have to come up with a new antibiotic resistant using natural selection
CULTURING MICROORGANISMS
1) Sterilize the agar and petri dish to prevent contamination
2) Pass the inoculation loop over the flam of the Bunsen burner to sterilize
3) Put the inoculation loop into the bacteria
4) Quickly transfer…read more

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