a)Dissolved substances move by diffusion and
by active transport.
b) Water often moves across boundaries by osmosis.
Osmosis is the diffusion of water from a dilute to a
more concentrated solution through a partially
permeable membrane that allows the passage of
c) Differences in the concentrations of the solutions
inside and outside a cell cause water to move
into or out of the cell by osmosis.
a) The lungs are in the upper part of the body (thorax),
protected by the ribcage and separated from the
lower part of the body (abdomen) by the diaphragm.
b) The breathing system takes air into and out of the
body so that oxygen from the air can diffuse into the
bloodstream and carbon dioxide can diffuse out of
the bloodstream into the air.
c) To make air move into the lungs the ribcage moves
out and up and the diaphragm becomes flatter. These
changes are reversed to make air move out of the
lungs. The movement of air into and out of the lungs
is known as ventilation.
Exchange systems in plants
a) In plants:
■ carbon dioxide enters leaves by diffusion
■ most of the water and mineral ions are
absorbed by roots.
b) The surface area of the roots is increased by root
hairs and the surface area of leaves is increased
by the flattened shape and internal air spaces.
c) Plants have stomata to obtain carbon dioxide from
the atmosphere and to remove oxygen produced
The circulatory system transports substances
around the body.
b) The heart is an organ and pumps blood around
the body. Much of the wall of the heart is made
from muscle tissue.
c) There are four main chambers (left and right atria
and ventricles) of the heart.
a) Blood is a tissue and consists of a fluid called
plasma in which red blood cells, white blood cells,
and platelets are suspended.
b) Blood plasma transports:
■ carbon dioxide from the organs to the lungs
■ soluble products of digestion from the small
intestine to other organs
■ urea from the liver to the kidneys.
Transport systems in plants
a) Flowering plants have separate transport systems:
■ xylem tissue transports water and mineral ions
from the roots to the stem and leaves
■ the movement of water from the roots through
the xylem and out of the leaves is called the
■ phloem tissue carries dissolved sugars from
the leaves to the rest of the plant, including the
growing regions and the storage organs.
Humans need to remove waste products from their bodies to keep their internal environment relatively constant.
People whose kidneys do not function properly may die because toxic substances accumulate in their blood. Their
lives can be saved by using dialysis machines or having a healthy kidney transplanted. Water and ion content,
body temperature and blood glucose levels must be kept within very narrow ranges.
Removal of waste and water control
a) Waste products that have to be removed from the
■ carbon dioxide, produced by respiration and
removed via the lungs when we breathe out
■ urea, produced in the liver by the breakdown of
amino acids and removed by the kidneys in the
urine, which is temporarily stored in the bladder.
b) If the water or ion content of the body is wrong, too
much water may move into or out of the cells and
damage them. Water and ions enter the body
when we eat and drink.
a) Sweating helps to cool the body. More water is lost
when it is hot, and more water has to be taken as
drink or in food to balance this loss.
b) Body temperature is monitored and controlled by the
thermoregulatory centre in the brain. This centre has
receptors sensitive to the temperature of the blood
flowing through the brain.
c) Also temperature receptors in the skin send impulses
to the thermoregulatory centre, giving information
about skin temperature.
a) The blood glucose concentration of the body is
monitored and controlled by the pancreas. The
pancreas produces the hormone insulin, which
allows the glucose to move from the blood into
b) A second hormone, glucagon, is produced in
the pancreas when blood glucose levels fall.
This causes glycogen to be converted into
glucose and be released into the blood.
Waste from human activity
a) Rapid growth in the human population and an
increase in the standard of living means that
increasingly more waste is produced. Unless
waste is properly handled, more pollution will
b) Waste may pollute:
■ water, with sewage, fertiliser or toxic chemicals
Deforestation and destruction of areas of peat
a) Large-scale deforestation in tropical areas, for timber
and to provide land for agriculture, has:
■ increased the release of carbon dioxide into the
atmosphere (because of burning and the
activities of microorganisms)
■ reduced the rate at which carbon dioxide is
removed from the atmosphere and ‘locked up’
for many years as wood.
b) Deforestation leads to reduction in biodiversity.
a) Levels of carbon dioxide and methane in the
atmosphere are increasing and contribute to
‘global warming’. An increase in the Earth’s
temperature of only a few degrees Celsius:
■ may cause big changes in the Earth’s climate
■ may cause a rise in sea level
■ may reduce biodiversity
■ may cause changes in migration patterns, eg in birds
■ may result in changes in the distribution of species.
a) At each stage in a food chain, less material and less
energy are contained in the biomass of the organisms.
This means that the efficiency of food production can be
improved by reducing the number of stages in food chains.
b) The efficiency of food production can also be
improved by restricting energy loss from food
animals by limiting their movement and by
controlling the temperature of their surroundings.
Temperature control 2
d) If the core body temperature is too high:
■ blood vessels supplying the skin capillaries
dilate so that more blood flows through the
capillaries and more heat is lost
■ sweat glands release more sweat which
cools the body as it evaporates.
e) If the core body temperature is too low:
■ blood vessels supplying the skin capillaries
constrict to reduce the flow of blood through
■ muscles may ‘shiver’ – their contraction
needs respiration, which releases some
energy to warm the body
d) Most soft drinks contain water, sugar and ions.
e) Sports drinks contain sugars to replace the sugar
used in energy release during the activity. They
also contain water and ions to replace the water
and ions lost during sweating.
f) If water and ions are not replaced, the ion / water
balance of the body is disturbed and the cells do
not work as efficiently.
Removal of waste and water control 2
c) A healthy kidney produces urine by:
■ first filtering the blood
■ reabsorbing all the sugar
■ reabsorbing the dissolved ions needed by the body
■ reabsorbing as much water as the body needs
■ releasing urea, excess ions and water as urine.
d) People who suffer from kidney failure may be treated
either by using a kidney dialysis machine or by having
a healthy kidney transplanted.
e) Treatment by dialysis restores the concentrations of
dissolved substances in the blood to normal levels
and has to be carried out at regular intervals.
The blood 2
c) Red blood cells transport oxygen from the lungs
to the organs. Red blood cells have no nucleus.
They are packed with a red pigment called
haemoglobin. In the lungs haemoglobin
combines with oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin.
In other organs oxyhaemoglobin splits up into
haemoglobin and oxygen.
d) White blood cells have a nucleus. They form part of
the body’s defence system against microorganisms.
e) Platelets are small fragments of cells. They have no
nucleus. Platelets help blood to clot at the site of
Temperature control 3
f) In a dialysis machine a person’s blood flows between
partially permeable membranes. The dialysis fluid
contains the same concentration of useful substances
as the blood. This ensures that glucose and useful
mineral ions are not lost. Urea passes out from the
blood into the dialysis fluid.
g) In kidney transplants a diseased kidney is replaced
with a healthy one from a donor. However, the
donor kidney may be rejected by the immune
system unless precautions are taken.
Transport systems in plants 2
d) Plants mainly lose water vapour from their leaves.
Most of the loss of water vapour takes place
through the stomata.
■ Evaporation is more rapid in hot, dry and
■ If plants lose water faster than it is replaced
by the roots, the stomata can close to prevent wilting.
e) The size of stomata is controlled by guard cells,
which surround them.
Blood system 2
d) Blood enters the atria of the heart. The atria contract
and force blood into the ventricles. The ventricles
contract and force blood out of the heart. Valves in
the heart ensure that blood flows in the correct
direction. Blood flows from the heart to the organs
through arteries and returns through veins. There are
two separate circulation systems, one for the lungs
and one for all other organs of the body.
Blood system 3
e) Arteries have thick walls containing muscle and
elastic fibres. Veins have thinner walls and often
have valves to prevent back-flow of blood.
f) If arteries begin to narrow and restrict blood flow
stents are used to keep them open.
g) In the organs, blood flows through very narrow,
thin-walled blood vessels called capillaries. Substances
needed by the cells in body tissues pass out of the
blood, and substances produced by the cells pass
into the blood, through the walls of the capillaries.
Removal of waste and water control 3
h) Antigens are proteins on the surface of cells. The
recipient’s antibodies may attack the antigens on
the donor organ as they do not recognise them as
part of the recipient’s body.
i) To prevent rejection of the transplanted kidney:
■ a donor kidney with a ‘tissue-type’ similar to
that of the recipient is used
■ the recipient is treated with drugs that suppress
the immune system.
Waste from human activity 2
■ air, with smoke and gases such as sulfur dioxide,
which contributes to acid rain
■ land, with toxic chemicals such as pesticides and
herbicides, which may be washed from the land
c) Humans reduce the amount of land available for other
animals and plants by building, quarrying, farming
and dumping waste.
Deforestation and destruction of areas of peat 2
c) Deforestation has occurred so that:
■ crops can be grown from which biofuels, based
on ethanol, can be produced
■ there can be increases in cattle and in rice fields to
provide more food. These organisms produce
methane and this has led to increases in methane
in the atmosphere.
d) The destruction of peat bogs and other areas of
peat releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere
b) Carbon dioxide can be sequestered in oceans, lakes
and ponds and this is an important factor in removing
carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
c) Biofuels can be made from natural products by
fermentation. Biogas, mainly methane, can be produced
by anaerobic fermentation of a wide range of plant
products or waste material containing carbohydrates.
Food production 2
c) Fish stocks in the oceans are declining. It is important
to maintain fish stocks at a level where breeding
continues or certain species may disappear altogether
in some areas. Net size and fishing quotas play an
important role in conservation of fish stocks.
d) The fungus Fusarium is useful for producing
mycoprotein, a protein-rich food suitable for
vegetarians. The fungus is grown on glucose
syrup, in aerobic condition.