AQA Biology Unit 2

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  • Created on: 21-04-11 16:39
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Wh at
a r
e t
he
struct
ure and f
unc t
ion
of
a ni
ma l
cell
s?
Theyh
a vean
u cl
eus(
t
his
co nt
rols
all
thea
cti
vi
ti
e s
of
thec
ell
s anda
lsoa
l
l
thei
nstr
u ct
ions
for
makingn
e w
ce l
ls)
, cyt
op l
asm (
thisi
st
hel i
quidg
e l
w hi
c hmo
s t of
t
h ec
h emical r
eacti
ons
t
akep
l acei
n), cel
l memb rane(
t
hisc
o nt
rolst
hep
a ssa geo
f
substance si
na
n do
u t
of t
he
cel
l)
, mit
ocho ndri
a(
t
heses truct
urei
nt hec
y t
o pl
asm wh er
emo
s t
of t
h ee
n er
gyi
srel
e ased
dur
ingr
e spi
rat
ion) andr
ibosome s
(thi
s
i
s wherep
r ot
eins
ynt
h esi
s t
ake s
placea
n dw
h erea
ll
t
he prot
e i
ns t
ha t
ar
e nee ded
in cel
ls
are ma de)
.
Wh at
are
the st
ructur
e
and
functi
on of
plant
cell
s?
Theyh
a vean
u cleus,
cytopl
a sm, cel
l
me mb rane,
mitocho ndr
ia,
ri
bos ome s,
cel
l
w all
(
these
ar
ema
d eo
f
ce l
lul
osea
n dt heys
t
rengthent
hec
e l
l
andg ivei
tsup port
),
chlor
o pl
asts(
these
ar
ef
oundi
na
ll t
heg
r eenp
a rt
so
f
thec
e l
l andt
hey areg
reenb ecau set
hey cont
a i
nag
r een
subst
a ncec
a l
l
e dc
h l
orophyll
andt
heya
b sor
bl i
ght energyt
oma
k ef
oo db
yp
h otosynthesi
s)
ands
o meh a veap
e r
ma nen t
vacuo l
e(t
he sea
r ef
il
l
e dw
i t
hc
e ll
sapt hat i
si
mp ortant
for
keepi
n g
the cel
ls
ri
gid t
o support
the pl
ant).
Wh at
are
en z
y mes?
Thesec
o ntr
ol
c hemical
reacti
onsi
nsi
dec
el
ls
an dt
hey aref
oundi
nd i
fferent
part
s of
thec
ell
,
soe
n zyme st
hat wou l
db
en e e dedf
or respi
rati
onw o uldb
ei nt
hemi
t ochondri
a ,
andt
he
ones f
or
p hot
os ynt
he si
s i
n t
he chlor
o pl
asts.
Wh at
are
spec i
ali
sed and organised
cell
s?
Thesea
r ec
e l
l
st hat
beco mes
p ecial
isedt
oc
arr
yo ut
ap art
icul
ar f
unction.
Some ti
me st
hey
ar
eg
r ou pedt
o get
he rt
of
or
m at i
ssue, andc
o nne ct
ivet
issuew
i l
l
joinb
itso
f yo ur
body
t
ogether andn
e rvoust
issuec
a rr
iesi
nformati
o na
ro undy
o ur
b odya
n dmu
s clesmo
v ey
o ur
bodya
b out,
andi
np
l antst
hep
h otosynthet
ict
issuema
k esf
oodb
yp h o t
osynthesisa
n d
st
oraget
issuess
to r
ea
n ye
x tr
af
oodt
hat
isma des ucha
s st
arch.
Inb
igge r
l
ivi
ngo
rgani
sms ,
t
heset i
ssuesw
o r
kt
o get
h er
t
od op
art
icul
a r
j
obs andt
h ey
formo rgans sucha
s
theh
eart
,
the
ki
dneyso
r
al eada
n di
nt
u r
nt
hesea
rec omb inedi
ntoo
rg ans
yst
emsw h ichc
a r
ry out
major
f
uncti
o ns
in
the body such as
tr
a nsport
ing
b l
ood or
reprod uct
ion.
How
do substances get
in
an d
ou t
of
cel
ls?
Substancesg
e t
inan do
u t
of
cell
sb
y
d i
ff
usion(
this
i
s then
e t
mo veme nt
ofpart
icl
e s
fr
oma n
ar
eao f hi
ghc
oncentrat
iona
na r eao
flowc
oncen t
rati
ont
il
l
ev ent
uall
y thea
mo un t
ofpart
icl
es
movingi
na ndo
u t
isthes
amea
ndt
h i
s
isc al
ledt
hec
oncentrat
iong
rad i
en t
),
osmo si
s (
thi
s
i
s
t
hed
i ff
usiono
f moleculesa
c rossas
e mi perme abl
eme
mb ranef
r
om ap laceo
f
h i
gher
sol
utec
o ncentrat
iont
oap
l aceo
f l
ow er
solut
ec o ncent
rati
o nu
n t
il
t
hec on cent
rati
ono
f
both
si
desi
se
q ual)
andb ya c t
ivet
ransport (
thi
si
nvolvest
h et
ransport
a t
iono
f
thingsf
rom a

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Page 2

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Wh at
i
s t
he
osmo si
s i
n
anima l
s?
Wh ent
hec
o ncen t
rat
iono
f you r
bod yf
lui
dsi
st hes
a mea si ny
o ur
redb
l oodc
e l
l
contents,
equal
amo untso
f water
leavea
n de
n ter
thec
el
l
b yr
ando m mo veme nt
w hi
chk
e epst
hec
ell
i
ns
h apeh
o w ever
i
fthec
o ncen t
rati
ono…read more

Page 3

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Wh at
i
s bioma ss?
Thi
si
st
hea
mo unt
o f
biol
og i
cal
ma ter
ial
w i
thi
na no
r gan i
sm a ndt
heb
io ma sst
hat
isma d e
byt
hep
l antsi
sp
a ss edo
nw i t
h i
na
no r ganism. Theb ioma ssw
h ichi
sma deb
yp la ntsi
s
passed on t
hrough
the f
o od
ch ai
n and we bs.…read more

Page 4

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Wh y
do plant
s need ma gnesium?
Pl
an t
sn
e edma
g nesium sot
hat
theyc
anma
k ec
hl
oroplast
sa n dt
hi
si
si mpo r
tant
because
t
hey need t
h e chlorophylli
n ordert
o ab sor
b t
h e li
ghte
n ergy thati
s needed for
photosynt
he si
s and
if
they don't
get
eno ugh mag nesi
um t
heir
leaves wil
l
go yell
ow and pal
e .…read more

Page 5

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Wh at
ar
e
the advant
a ges
and
disadvantage of
int
ensive
farming t
o or
gan i
c f
arming ?
I
ntensi
vef
ar
mi ngme
t hodsc
anp
rodu cec
he apme
a t
andi
t
takes upl
ess
spaceh o wever
the
ani
ma l
sh
a vea
nu
n natural
li
fea
n dp
e o pl
et
hat ar
ei
nt
e r
estedi
ne
t hi
csw
i ll
not buyt
he
pr
od uct
s and…read more

Page 6

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Thea
n i
ma l
st henr
espi
rea
n dt
hent hi
sr
el
easesc
a rbond
ioxideb
a cki
ntot
hea
tmo sphere.
Al
sof
ossi
li
sedp
l ant
sw h i
chc
o ntai
nc
a nb
eb u rnt
asf
uel andt
hisr
eleasesc
a r
b ond
ioxi
de
back
int
o t
h e
atmo sphere.…read more

Page 7

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I
t
takesp
lacei nt
hemi
t ochondriao
f your
ce l
ls,
whicha
ret i
dyr
ods
hapedb
o diesw
h i
chw
e
cal
l
organe l
l
e st
hat
ha veaf
ol
de di
nner me mb r
anet
og
ivet
h em
alarges
ur
facea
r eaf
or t
he
enzyme s
to
w ork
on .…read more

Page 8

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Thee nzyme s fr
omy o ur
pancreas arep
a ssedi
ntoy
our
small
intest
inea
n do
n cet
hef
oodmo
l ecul
esh a veb
e end igestedi ntos
o l
u bl
eg
l ucose,
aminoa
c i
d s,
f
a t
tya
c i
dsa
n dg
ly cerol
theyp
a ssi
ntoy
our
bloods
u pplyt
ob
ec a rr
ieda
ro und
t
o t
h e
ce l
l
s wh i
ch need them.…read more

Page 9

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How
can
w e use enzyme s
in
industr
y?
Prot
ea sesa
r eu
s edi
nt
hema
n ufactur
eo f babyf
oodss
i ncet
heyp
r edigest
someo f t
he
pr
oteini
nth ef
oodw
h ichma
k es i
t
ea si
er
for
theb
a by'
s
digest
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ystemw h ent
hey
fi
rst
star
t
t
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an d t
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ds wh i
ch t
he y
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Page 10

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How
is
the body bal
a nce
ma int
ained?
Wa t
er andI
onse
n ter
int
oy
o ur bodyw
h enever youe
a t
or
d r
inka
n ds
ot hew a t
er andi
on
cont
en t
of
you r
body havet
ob
ec
ar
e f
ull
y contr
oll
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