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Biology 2 - AQA

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Biology 2 - AQA
Topic 1: Cells
Animal and Plant Cells:
Animal Cells:

Biology 2 - AQA

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Cell Membrane ­ keeps the cell together and controls what goes in and out of
the cell.
Cytoplasm ­ this is where chemical reactions take place, contains enzymes.
Also makes up most of the cell.
Mitochondria/um ­ place of respiration, energy for the cell is released here.
Ribosome ­ place…

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o Contains haemoglobin (pigment that picks up oxygen)
Muscle cells ­ animal cell
o Elongated
o Contain may mitochondria as they require a lot of energy
o Have fibres in them that enable them to contract
Palisade cell ­ plant cell
o Large surface area
o Many tightly packed chloroplasts…

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Alveolus ­ there is a high concentration of oxygen in the alveolus and a low
concentration in the capillary so oxygen moves down the concentration
gradient and into the blood, oxygenating it. Also, there is a high
concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood (capillary), and a low
concentration in…

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membrane has holes in it that permit water molecules to move through it
but are too small to allow larger molecules through like sugar.
An example of osmosis in humans is in the blood stream. If there is a high
concentration of water in the blood stream and a low…

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Limiting Factors:
Factor Effect Scientific Reason Graph
Light Increased rate of This is because
photosynthesis more energy is
where there is more absorbed by the
light. plant, the energy
photosyn-thesis can
take place.
CO2 Increased levels of This is because the
CO2 mean increased more CO2, or raw

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How plants use glucose:
Use Explanation
Synthesis Glucose combines with minerals from the soil to make
Nitrogen and glucose provide the material for proteins.
These are used for cell growth.
Magnesium and glucose combine to make chlorophyll.
Storage Glucose that is not immediately used by the plant is

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Why do plants need minerals?:

The mineral ions are found in salts, dissolved in water. Plants obtain minerals
when they are absorb water from the soil.
Nitrogen Nitrates
Phosphorous Phosphates
Potassium Potassium ions
Magnesium Magnesium ions
o Makes chlorophyll, which is vital for photosynthesis
o Normal upper leaves, lower…

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o Lower leaves turn yellow
NPK fertiliser Nitrogen Phosphorous Potassium (key minerals needed)
Topic 3: Energy Flows
Pyramids of Biomass:
Food chain: sequence showing feeding relationships
Producer: organism that makes its own food
Consumer: organism that eats other organisms
Herbivore: organism that eats only plants
Carnivore: organism that eats only…


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