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Biology 2 - AQA
Topic 1: Cells
Animal and Plant Cells:
Animal Cells:
Biology 2 - AQA…read more

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Cell Membrane ­ keeps the cell together and controls what goes in and out of
the cell.
Cytoplasm ­ this is where chemical reactions take place, contains enzymes.
Also makes up most of the cell.
Mitochondria/um ­ place of respiration, energy for the cell is released here.
Ribosome ­ place of protein synthesis, often found around the encloplasmic
Nucleus ­ contains the cells genetic information (DNA, chromosomes and
genes) and controls the cell.…read more

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Contains haemoglobin (pigment that picks up oxygen)
Muscle cells ­ animal cell
o Elongated
o Contain may mitochondria as they require a lot of energy
o Have fibres in them that enable them to contract
Palisade cell ­ plant cell
o Large surface area
o Many tightly packed chloroplasts to maximise photosynthesis
o Near surface of the leaf (beneath upper epidermis which is a thin,
transparent layer)
Root hair cell ­ plant cell
o Has a thin membrane so the time taken for osmosis to…read more

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Alveolus ­ there is a high concentration of oxygen in the alveolus and a low
concentration in the capillary so oxygen moves down the concentration
gradient and into the blood, oxygenating it. Also, there is a high
concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood (capillary), and a low
concentration in the alveolus so this also moves down the concentration
gradient, enters the lungs and is then removed from the body through
exhalation.…read more

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An example of osmosis in humans is in the blood stream. If there is a high
concentration of water in the blood stream and a low concentration in the
red blood cell then water will move into the cell and cause it to swell.
Eventually, the cell will burst. However, if there is a low concentration of
water in the blood stream and a high concentration in the cell then water will
move out of the cell and cause it to shrink and shrivel.…read more

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Limiting Factors:
Factor Effect Scientific Reason Graph
Light Increased rate of This is because
photosynthesis more energy is
where there is more absorbed by the
light. plant, the energy
photosyn-thesis can
take place.
CO2 Increased levels of This is because the
CO2 mean increased more CO2, or raw
rate of material, there is,
photosynthesis. the more product
there is. The carbon
in CO2 is used for
glucose.…read more

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How plants use glucose:
Use Explanation
Synthesis Glucose combines with minerals from the soil to make
Nitrogen and glucose provide the material for proteins.
These are used for cell growth.
Magnesium and glucose combine to make chlorophyll.
Storage Glucose that is not immediately used by the plant is
converted into soluble starch for storage.
It is then changed back to glucose when it is needed.
Respiration A process used by all living cells to release energy from the
glucose.…read more

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Why do plants need minerals?:
The mineral ions are found in salts, dissolved in water. Plants obtain minerals
when they are absorb water from the soil.
Nitrogen Nitrates
Phosphorous Phosphates
Potassium Potassium ions
Magnesium Magnesium ions
o Makes chlorophyll, which is vital for photosynthesis
o Normal upper leaves, lower leaves turn yellow ­ lack of magnesium
o Used to make roots
o Turns purple
o Roots smaller, roots will not be able to absorb minerals and water.…read more

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Lower leaves turn yellow
NPK fertiliser Nitrogen Phosphorous Potassium (key minerals needed)
Topic 3: Energy Flows
Pyramids of Biomass:
Food chain: sequence showing feeding relationships
Producer: organism that makes its own food
Consumer: organism that eats other organisms
Herbivore: organism that eats only plants
Carnivore: organism that eats only animals
Omnivore: organism that eats both plants and animals
Biomass: living material that makes up organisms
Trophic: a feeding level in the food chain (trophic level)
Pyramid of numbers: the length of the bar represents the…read more


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