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BIOLOGY 3 NOTES




ACTIVE TRANSPORT B3 1.1

Substances get in and out of cells through:
-Diffusion-
-Osmosis-
-Active Transport
Concentration Gradient-The difference in concentration between the
two areas where the substance is present

DIFFUSION-

-The net movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area
of lower…

Page 2

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BIOLOGY 3 NOTES




ACTIVE TRANSPORT

-When a cell needs to take up a substance against the concentration gradient,
this involves energy and is called `active transport'

Active Transport:
-Goes against the concentration gradient
-Requires energy from respiration-mitochondria
-Is across a living cell membrane
-Requires a transport protein

Active transport is…

Page 3

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BIOLOGY 3 NOTES




EXCHANGE OF MATERIALS IN OTHER ORGANISMS B3 1.4

FISH:
-Water pumped over gills to maintain concentration gradient
-Gills are moist (gasses easily dissolve)
-Gills are thin (short diffusion pathway)
-Fish cannot survive out of water because their gills stick together and gas
exchange cannot take place
FROGS:…

Page 4

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BIOLOGY 3 NOTES




THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM B3 2.1

-The heart pumps blood around the body
-There are two separate circulation systems for humans-`double circulation',
for fish there is only one-`single circulation'
-Arteries, veins and capillaries are the vessels involved in transporting the
blood
Blood is pumped from the heart lungs…

Page 5

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BIOLOGY 3 NOTES




TRANSPORT IN THE BLOOD-(approx. 5 litres in the body)

Constituents of the Blood Function
Red Blood Cells Involved In transport of oxygen
(-Short diffusion pathway around the body. Contains hemoglobin
-NO NUCLEUS-more HB

White Blood Cells Part of the body's defense against
disease etc (lymphocytes and
phagocytes…

Page 6

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BIOLOGY 3 NOTES




Long Term benefits from regular exercise:

-Muscle hypertrophy
-Increased Alveoli
-Lower resting breathing rate
-Increased stroke volume
-Bigger Lungs
-Increased Vo2 Max
-Quicker recovery rate

ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION

Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration
-With oxygen -Without oxygen
-Products: CO2 and H2 0 -Product: Lactic acid
-More energy released -Less…

Page 7

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BIOLOGY 3 NOTES




Ureter-tube through which urine passes from the kidney bladder
Renal Artery-brings blood containing urea & other substances in solution to
the kidney
Renal Vein- carries blood away from the kidney, after urea & other substances
have been removed from the blood by the kidney
Bladder-stores urine
Urethra-tube…

Page 8

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BIOLOGY 3 NOTES




-Needs to be done regularly to avoid the build up of urea




KIDNEY TRANSPLANTS

-Failed kidneys replaced by single healthy kidney from donor
-Donor usually dead, but may be alive
-Patient needs to be healthy to undergo surgery
-To prevent rejection by the immune system:
Kidney needs…

Page 9

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BIOLOGY 3 NOTES




FOOD PRODUCTION USING YEAST

-Single celled organism
-Used to make alcoholic drinks, e.g. beer
-Respires both aerobically and anaerobically
-Anaerobic respiration of yeast produces alcohol and Carbon Dioxide

Aerobic-- Oxygen + Glucose-> CO2 + Water (+ energy)
Anaerobic--Glucose CO2 +Ethanol (+ energy)

Letting bread rise whilst being…

Page 10

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BIOLOGY 3 NOTES




LARGE-SCALE MICROBE PRODUCTION

-Microorganisms can be grown on a large scale in industrial fermenters
-The conditions in a fermenter must be very carefully controlled
-A mycoprotein can be produced using the fungus Fusarium
-pH are also monitored closely in a fermenter
-A fermenter needs to be kept…

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Katie789

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thanks, this was really useful.

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