AQA Biology Specification

All the main points of the specification typed out (for the Higher Tier). Apparently just regurgitating the specification correctly wil get you a B. 

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Biology Specification
B1.1. Keeping healthy
A combination of a balanced diet and regular exercise is needed to help keep the body healthy.
Our bodies provide an excellent environment for many microbes which can make us ill once they
are inside us. Our bodies need to stop most microbes getting in and deal with any microbes
which do get in. Vaccinations can be used to prevent infection
B1.1.1. Diet and exercise
A healthy diet contains the right balance of the different foods you need and the right amount of
energy .Carbohydrates, fats and proteins are used by the body to release energy and to build
cells.Mineral ions and vitamins
are needed in small amounts for healthy functioning of the body .
A person is malnourished if their diet is not balanced . This may lead to a person being overweight
or underweight . An unbalanced diet may also lead to deficiency diseases or conditions such as
Type 2 diabetes
A person loses mass when the energy content of the food taken in is less than the amount of
energy expended by the body. Exercise increases the amount of energy expended by the body .
The rate at which all the chemical reactions in the cells of the body are carried out (the
metabolic rate) varies with the amount of activity you do and the proportion of muscle to fat in
your body. Metabolic rate may be affected by inherited factors .
Inherited factors also affect our health; for example cholesterol level .
People who exercise regularly are usually healthier than people who take little exercise .
B1.1.2. How our bodies defend themselves against infectious diseases
Microorganisms that cause infectious disease are called pathogens .
Bacteria and viruses may reproduce rapidly inside the body and may produce poisons (toxins )
that make us feel ill.Viruses damage the cells in which they reproduce .
The body has different ways of protecting itself against pathogens
White blood cells help to defend against pathogens by:
ingesting pathogens
producing antibodies
, which destroy particular bacteria or viruses
producing antitoxins
, which counteract the toxins released by the pathogens.
The immune system of the body produces specific antibodies to kill a particular pathogen. This
leads to immunity from that pathogen . In some cases, dead or inactivated pathogens stimulate
antibody produc tion. If a large proportion of the population is immune to a pathogen, the spread
of the pathogen is very much reduced.
Semmelweis recognised the importance of hand-washing in the prevention of spreading some
infectious diseases. By insisting that doctors washed their hands before examining patients, he
greatly reduced the number of deaths from infectious diseases in his hospital.
Some medicines, including painkillers, help to relieve the symptoms of infectious disease, but do
not kill the pathogens

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Antibiotics , including penicillin, are medicines that help to cure bacterial disease by killing
infectious bacteria inside the body. Antibiotics cannot be used to kill viral pathogens, which live
and reproduce inside cell s. It is important that specific bacteria should be treated by specific
antibiotics . The use of antibiotics has greatly reduced deaths from infectious bacterial diseases.
Overuse and inappropriate use of antibiotics has increased the rate of development of antibiotic
resistant strains of bacteria .…read more

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Cells called receptors detect stimuli (changes in the environment).…read more

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These resulted in women
suffering significant side effects ­ birth-control pills now contain a much lower dose of oestrogen,
or are progesterone only ­ progesterone-only pills lead to fewer side effects
giving FSH and LH in a `fertility drug' to a woman whose own level of FSH is too low to stimulate
eggs to mature , for example in In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) treatment ­ IVF involves giving a
mother FSH and LH to stimulate the maturation of several eggs .…read more

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More recently, thalidomide has been used successfully in the treatment of leprosy
and other diseases
Illegal recreational drugs ; ecstasy, cannabis and heroin may have adverse effects on the heart
and circulatory system .
Cannabis is an illegal drug. Cannabis smoke contains chemicals which may cause mental illness in
some people.
The overall impact of legal drugs (prescribed and non-prescribed) on health is much greater than
the impact of illegal drugs because far more people use them .…read more

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Animals and plants may be adapted to cope with specific featuresof their environment, eg
thorns,poisons and warning coloursto deter predators .
B1.4.2. Environmental change
Changes in the environment affect the distribution of living organisms .
Examples might include, but not limited to, the changing distribution of some birdspecies
and the
disappearance of pollinating insects, including bees .
Animals and plants are subjected to environmental changes .…read more

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The same material is recycledover and over
again and can lead to stable communities .
B1.6.1. Decay Processes
Living things remove materials from the environment for growth and other processes . These
materials are returned to the environment either in waste materials or when living things dieand
decay .
Materials decay because they are broken down ( digested) by microorganisms . Microorganisms
are more active and digest materials faster in warm, moist, aerobic conditions .…read more

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The information that results in plants and animals having similar characteristics to their parents is
carried by genes , which are passed on in the sex cells (gametes) from which the offspring
develop .
Genes operate at a molecular level to develop characteristics that can be seen .
The nucleus of a cell contains chromosomes . Chromosomes carry genes that control the
characteristics of the body.
Different genes control the development of different characteristics of an organism.…read more

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Particular genes or accidental changes in the genes of plants or animals may give them
characteristics which enable them to survive better .Over time this may result in entirely new
species . There are different theories of evolution . Darwin's theory is the most widely accepted .
Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection states that all species of living things have
evolved from simple life forms that first developed more than three billion years ago .…read more

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B2.1. Cells and Simple Cell Transport
All living things are made up of cells . The structures of different types of cells are relat ed to their
functions. To get into or out of cells, dissolved substances have to cross the cell membranes .…read more



Thanks a lot!

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