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Unit 2…read more

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Animal and Plant Cells
Animal Cells: Structure and Function
·They have a nucleus that controls the activities of the
cells and also all the instructions for making new cells or Nucleus
new organisms Ribosomes
·The cytoplasm is a liquid gel which most of the
chemical reactions needed for like take place
·The cell membrane, is that which controls the
Cell membrane
passage of substances in and out of the cell
·The mitochondria structures in the cytoplasm where
most of the energy is released during respiration
·Ribosomes, is where protein synthesis takes place Mitochondria
and all the proteins that are needed in cells are made
Nucleus Cytoplasm
Cytoplasm Plant Cells: Structure and Function
·All plant cells have a cell wall made of cellulose which strengthens
Cellulose cell the cell and gives it support
wall ·Some have chloroplasts which are found in all the green parts of
Chloroplasts the plant and they are green because they contain chlorophyll, and
Cell membrane they absorb light energy to make food by photosynthesis
·Some also have a permanent vacuole which is a space in the
Mitochondria cytoplasm filled with cell sap that is important for keeping cells rigid
to support the plant.
Vacuole Enzymes control the chemical reactions inside cells and they are
usually found in different parts of the cell, so for example the enzymes
needed for respiration are in the mitochondria, the ones for
photosynthesis are in the chloroplasts.…read more

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Specialised Cells
Cells may become specialised in order to carry out a particular function: Organised cells
Specialised cells are often grouped
Fat Cell Cone cell from Human Eye together to form a tissue, and connective
tissue joins bits of your body together, and
These are storage cells, and they They are a in the light sensitive layer of they nervous tissue carries information around
have very little normal cytoplasm eye and they make it possible for us to see your body and muscles move your body
and this leaves room for large in colour, as they outer segment is filled about, and in plants photosynthetic tissue
amounts of fat, and they have little with a special chemical known as a visual makes food by photosynthesis while
mitochondria since they use very pigment which changes chemically in
storage tissues store any extra food that is
little energy. They can also expand coloured light, and then has to be changed
made such as starch. In bigger living
as they fill with fat which is useful. back to its original form using energy, the
organisms, different tissues work together
middle segments has lots of mitochondria
so lots more energy can be released and the
to do particular jobs and they form an
final part is a specialised nerve ending that organ such as the heart, the kidneys or a
connects to the optic nerve meaning leaf, and in turn different organs are
responses to coloured light can be sent to combined in organ systems to carry out
the brain. major functions in the body such as
transporting blood or reproduction.
Root Hair Cell Sperm Cell
These are found close to the tips of They need to move through the female
growing roots and they need to reproduce system in order to reach an egg
enable plants to take in water, and and then to break into it, so they have long
they are adapted since they have a tails with muscle like proteins so that they
large surface area for water to can swim, and they have lots of
move in and a large permanent mitochondria meaning they can release lots
vacuole affects the movement of of energy to work the tail, they have
water and they are positioned acrosome which stores digestive enzymes
close to xylem tissue which that help them break down the outer layers
transports water to the rest of the if the egg, and a large nucleus that contains
plant. the genetic information to be passed on.…read more

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How do substances get in and
out of cells + Osmosis
Substances get in and out of cells by: Osmosis is a special case of diffusion and it is the movement of water
·Diffusion: is the net movement of particles (solvent) from a high water concentration (dilute solution) to a low water
from an area of high concentration to an concentration (concentrated solution) through a partially permeable
area of low concentration, the net membrane.
movement = particles moving in ­ particles
moving out, and the difference between Osmosis in Animals
tow areas of concentration is called the ·When the concentration of your body fluids is the same as in your red
concentration gradient blood cell contents, equal amounts of water enter and leave the cell by
·Osmosis: diffusion of molecules through a random movement and this keeps the cell in shape
semi permeable membrane from a place of ·If the concentration of the solution around the red blood cells is higher than
higher concentration to a place of lower the concentration of the substances inside the cell, water will leave the cell
concentration until the concentration on by osmosis meaning that it will shrivel and shrink and not be able to carry
both sides is equal oxygen around your body
·Active Transport :involves the ·If the concentration of your body fluids is lower than in your blood cell
transportation of things from a region of contents, then water enters the cells by osmosis so your red blood cells
lower concentration to a higher swell up and lose their shape and eventually burst.
Osmosis in Plants
·Plants rely on well-regulated osmosis to support their stems and leaves,
since the water moves in to plant cells by osmosis and this makes the
cytoplasm swell against the plant cell walls, and the pressure builds up till
no more water can physically enter the cell and this makes is hard and
rigid.…read more

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How Plants
Food…read more

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