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Topic 1: Couples
The main sociologists for this topic are:
Parsons: (Division of labour)
Bott: (Conjugal roles)
Young and Wilmott: (Bethnal Green study)
Oakley: (Feminist)
Gershuny: (Greater equality)
Dunne: (Lesbian couples and gender scripts)
Pahl and Vogler: (Family income control)
Dobash and Dobash: (Domestic violence)
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The Domestic Division of…

Page 2

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The Dual Burden
The increase in the number of women working has simply given women the dual burden of paid work and unpaid
housework.
Women also take care of the emotional side of the family, meaning that women actually do a triple shift of
housework, paid work and emotional work.…

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Suggest two reasons for the rise of the symmetrical family (8marks)
Explain what is meant by the dual burden (2marks)
Explain what is meant by emotion work (2marks)
Explain what is meant by geographical mobility (2marks)
Explain the difference between geographical and social mobility (4marks)



Topic 2: Childhood
The main…

Page 4

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Has the position improved?

The March of Progress View (! important)
Family and society have become `child centred'.

Children are better cared for in terms of their educational, psychological and medical needs.
Most babies now survive: the infant mortality rate in 1900 was 154; now it is 5.
Higher living…

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Functionalism
It is a consensus theory which argues that there is value consensus in society which enables people to live
harmoniously together.
Functionalists believe that society is made up of different sub-systems that depend on each other, such as
health care, education, law etc.

4 basic functions of the…

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Unit of consumption: Parents are persuaded by children to provide goods they don't need. Family is the
ideal unit of consumption.

CRITICISMS OF MARXISM:
1. Marxists tend to overestimate the widespread nature of the nuclear family.
2. Feminists argue that Marxists ignore the importance of gender when studying the family.…

Page 7

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Fall in the infant mortality rate

The infant mortality rate is the number of live-born infants who die before their first birthday.
In 1900, the IMR was 154, by 2007 it was 5.
A fall in the IMR may cause a fall in the birth rate: if infants survive, parents…

Page 8

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The Ageing Population

What are the consequences of an ageing population?

Public services:
Older people consume a large population of services such as health care. Older people are more dependent. An
ageing population may also mean changes to policies and provision of housing, transport or others.

One-person pensioner households:
The…

Page 9

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Topic 5: Changing family patterns
Divorce

3 kinds of changes in the law
1. Equalising the grounds (legal reasons) for divorce between the sexes.
2. Widening the grounds for divorce.
3. Making divorce cheaper

Other factors that have made divorce easier to obtain are
Irretrievable breakdown (the agreement between both…

Page 10

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Marriage
Serial monogamy is when an individual gets married, divorced then remarried multiple times.

One reason for the fall in the number of first marriages is the fear of divorce. Another reason is the changing
attitudes; there is still less pressure to marry and more freedom for individuals to choose…

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