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Class Difference in Achievement - External Factors

Cultural Deprivation
Parents pass on their basic values, attitudes and skills through primary socialisation which
are needed for educational success.
Many W/C families have failed to socialise their children adequately, leading to cultural
deprivation and school underachievement.

Three main aspects of cultural deprivation:…

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Nearly 90% of 'failing' schools are located in deprived areas.
W/C families are much more likely to have low incomes and inadequate housing which shows
the link between poverty and social class.

Poor housing can affect achievement directly and indirectly. E.g. Overcrowding can affect it
directly as the child…

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knowledge thus a higher cultural capital. These pupils were more likely to be successful at

Gewirtz: Marketisation and Parental Choice:how cultural and economic capital can lead to
differences in educational achievement.

She examined class differences in parental choice of secondary school using interviews in her
study of 14 London…

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untrue because the test was an IQ test. The researchers tested all the pupils and then
picked 20% of them randomly, and told the school that they were 'spurters'. When they
returned a year later, they found that almost half (47%) of those 'spurters' had made
significant progress, especially the…

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Rebellion- outright rejection of everything the school stands for.
Furlong also observes that pupils don't stick to one response but tend to move between

different responses.

The limitations of labelling theory
The labelling theory is accused of determinism as it assumes that pupils who are labelled have
no choice but…

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Walford's research on city technology colleges found that although they were intended to

provide vocational education in partnership with employers to recruit pupils from all social
backgrounds, in practice they have come to be just another route to elite education.

There is evidence that marketisation and selection have created a…

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Keddie : culturally different not culturally deprived argument, and they underachieve because
schools are ethnocentric: biased to favour the white culture.

Material Deprivation & Class

Flaherty argues that ethnic minorities are more likely to face these problems: For example:

Pakistanis and Bangladeshis are over three times more likely than whites…

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The conformist- largest group. Keen to succeed and not a part of the subculture.
The retreatist- tiny minority of isolated individuals. Disconnected from both the school and
the black subculture.
The innovators- only valued success but only conformed to schoolwork, not the teachers.

Labelling theory shows how teachers' stereotypes can…

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Vocational courses: a larger proportion of girls receive distinction in every subject than

External factors and gender differences in achievement
The impact of feminism

MOP equal rights view by Angela McRobbie who compared women's magazines from the 1970s
and 1990s. In the 1970s the magazines were emphasising the importance…

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Mitsos and Browne suggest that girls are more successful at coursework because they are

better at meeting deadlines, more organised, spend more time on their work and more

Teacher attention

Swann and Graddol found that boys attract the teacher's attention so they get more
opportunities to speak. However, they…


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