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1. The role and purpose of education, including vocational
education and training in contemporary society.
Functionalist and New Right views of the role and purpose of education

Durkheim ­ Social Solidarity ­ Functionalist; to bind members of society together ­ this
creates social unity and solidarity. Therefore like the…

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diversity, choice and efficiency to schools and increasing their ability to meet the needs of
pupils, parents and employers.

Gewirtz and Ball both argue that competition between schools benefits the middle class, who can
use their cultural and economic capital to gain access to more desirable schools. Other

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self-motivated, independent and diverse, education reproduces diversity not inequality. They also
differ in their approach to how legitimization this place. B&G thinks school brainwash capitalist
values into pupils passively while Willis thinks students actively accept and do not conform to
school values however his study of 12 boys is likely…

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Afro-Caribbean boys are more likely to be excluded from school and placed in lower
streams than any other ethnic groups.
Sutton Trust - Material Deprivation ­ Social Class -
found a direct relationship
between free school meals and attainment. Leading state schools had had around
3% of their intake eligible…

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JWB Douglas 1964 - Parental Interest - Class Subcultures; JWB Douglas in a
longitudinal study of UK school pupils asserted that the greatest impact on a
student's progress was the level of interest shown in the child's education. MC
parents gave greater attention to children's education than WC. MC parents…

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The relationship between class, gender and ethnicity.
· Smith and Tomlinson 1989 - Class Balance - Ethnicity ; Argue that class background
of pupils was more important than ethnicity in explaining poor academic success.
Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Afro-Caribbean groups are more likely to be in lower
social class positions whereas…

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encourages students to obey laws in society when they leave school. Acceptance of
Inequality, schools tend to band and set children into ability groups, this
encourages a belief amongst children that some people are better than others.
Society's expectations of gender are "taught" in schools, careers advice is still

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lessons and confided in other teachers whom they trusted. The most successful
students were the ones who learnt to steer themselves through these obstacles.
· Coard 1971 - Inferiority Complex - Ethnicity ; He believed that schools made ethnic
minorities `feel inferior in every way'. Black people and their achievements…

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labelling pupils but fails to explain why they do so. They argue labels aren't merely a result of the
teachers individual prejudices but rather stem from the fact that teachers work for a system that
reproduces class divisions. Labelling is also highly offensive to teachers as all teachers want to…

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science and maths. Vocational courses -vocational courses are more gender
segregated. 1/100 construction apprentices is female.
4. The significance of educational policies, including selection,
comprehensivisation and marketisation, for an understanding
of the structure, role, impact and experience of education.

Independent schools.
· Independent schools are schools that exist outside state…


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