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Psychoanalysis (psychodynamic) Behaviour modification Client-centred therapy (humanistic) Cognitive behavioural therapy Drug treatment (biological)
Psychoanalysis (psychodynamic) +Both `exposure' and `free association +Both treat psychological disorders with +In both therapies, the therapist decides +Both treat psychological disorders with
adopt the talking cure by using the talking the idea that motivational drives may what behaviours should be modified. the idea that motivational drives may
cure method. have encouraged their behaviour, e.g. -Cognitive behavioural therapy would have encouraged their behaviour, e.g.
-Psychoanalysis works on the grounds of Eros and Thanatos/motivation drives. treat depression by trying to change the Eros and Thanatos/'survival of the fittest'.
opening the unconscious mind. Yet -Psychoanalysis is directive and the negative schemas. This is compared with -Psychoanalysis works on the grounds
behaviour modification works on the therapist has all the power, whereas, in psychoanalysis which would treat that there is a psychological problem with
grounds of classical and operant client-centred therapy the client has all depression by "opening" the unconscious the unconscious mind. On the other hand,
conditioning. the power and the therapy is mind. drug treatment suggested that the
non-directive. psychological problem had a physical
-Psychoanalysis works on the grounds of cause and so should have a physical
opening the unconscious mind. This treatment.
diverges with client-centred therapy which
aims to reduce the incongruences
between the ideal and actual self.
Behaviour modification +In both therapies, the therapist decides + In both therapies, the therapy would not + They both work on the grounds that the + They both can use drugs as part of their
(behaviourist) what behaviours should be modified. work if the therapist held back. behaviour was caused as a result of a treatment. This is because biological
-Psychoanalysis would be used to treat Client-centred therapy would argue they certain stimulus. approach focuses on drugs as a
phobias and this is contrasted with require empathy, unconditional positive -In spite of this, behaviour modification treatment to treat the physical cause but
behaviour modification which would regard and genuineness. would suggest that we were determined behaviour modification uses drugs as part
either use flooding or systematic -Client-centred therapy works on the aim by the environment. Though, cognitive of their aversion therapy so patients
desensitisation to face the phobia. It to reduce incongurency between the ideal behavioural therapy believes in soft avoid an unpleasant stimulus.
could be argued that behaviour and actual self. Even so, behaviour determinism, the psychological disorder -Behaviour modification works on the
modification may be more successful, modification focuses on classical and was not determined by the environment. grounds that there is a psychological
nevertheless flooding is unethical. operant conditioning to modify problem and works on classical and
behaviour. operant conditioning. Alternatively, drug
treatment suggested that the
psychological problem had a physical
cause and so should have a physical
Client-centred therapy (humanistic) + + + In both therapies, the therapy would not
-Psychoanalysis would argue eating -In client-centred therapy, the therapy is work if the therapist held back. -Drug treatment would argue criminality is
disorders are possibly as a result of being non-directive and the client decides what Client-centred therapy would argue they a result of testosterone (Dabbs),
fixated in the oral stage which has behaviours they want to change. Though, require empathy, unconditional positive physiological features (Lombroso and
become evident in adult personality. This in behaviour modification, the therapist regard and genuineness. Sheldon) and Jacob's XYY man. This is
differs from client-centred therapy which decides what behaviours should be contrasted with client-centred therapy
would argue it was a result of the changed. which would argue it may be a result of
incongurency between the ideal and the incongurency between the ideal and
actual self which they would aim to actual self and an inability to move up the
reduce. hierarchy (Maslow).
Cognitive behavioural therapy + Both have been adopted by a large +In both therapies, the therapist decides -Client-centred therapy aims to reduce +
(cognitive) number of institutes, e.g. police force. what behaviours should be modified. incongurency to allow the client to -Drug treatment would treat depression
continue to strive to self-actualisation. using antidepressants, e.g. selective
This is the reason behind the serotonin reuptake inhibitors (e.g.
psychological illness. On the contrary, Prozac). However, in cognitive
cognitive behavioural therapy would behavioural therapy, the therapist would
argue schemas are developed in aim to change negative schemas to alter
childhood and in particularly negative their view on life.
schemas were a result of critical parents.
Drug treatment (biological) -Psychoanalysis is unable to treat -Behaviour modification would treat -Client-centred therapy works on the -Cognitive behavioural therapy works on
patients with schizophrenia, autism or depression using exposure which is a grounds that there is a psychological the grounds that there is a psychological
child abuse cases. This varies with drug talking cure and allows the patient to talk problem with incongurency between the problem with the negative schemas.
treatment which can treat these cases about the event which may highlight the ideal and actual self. Conversely, drug Instead, drug treatment suggested that
using a drug treatment. underlying causes. Nonetheless, the drug treatment suggested that the the psychological problem had a physical
treatment would disagree with this form psychological problem had a physical cause and so should have a physical
of treatment and may use drugs (such as cause and so should have a physical treatment.
lithium bicarbonate) to treat people with treatment.