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­ i.e. the behaviour of 5% of the population. According to the social norm
definition, any behaviour which deviates from what society sees as desirable behaviour is
classed as abnormal.
Why is it difficult to define abnormality?
Even amongst psychologists there is disagreement about the causes of abnormal behaviour
and depending on the approach the psychologist comes from, they will have different views of
the causes of the mental disorder, the reasons behind this and what the correct treatment is.…read more

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Expensive compared with secondary data because data is gathered from the start.
Limited to the time, place and no. of Ppts whereas secondary can come from multiple
sources to give more range and detail.
Researchers may be subjective in what kinds of data they look for, for example data which
fits their hypothesis.
Describe what is meant by `secondary data'
Secondary data is sencond hand analysis of pre-existing (primary) data which was collected by
someone else. It is used for further research by the researcher.…read more

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Describe animal experiments:
Although it is thought that schizophrenia is a condition only found in humans, it is possible to
model the disorder and test treatments on animals.
Humans and animals have similar hormonal system, nervous system and brain with rats
sharing humans' hind-, mid- and fore-brain.
This means that experiments can be conducted that would be unethical to conduct on
Researchers attempt to `induce' schizophrenia in animals; perhaps by administering drugs
(e.g. amphetamine) producing symptoms similar to positive symptoms of schizophrenia.…read more

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If it is found that MZ twins have a higher concordance rate than DZ twins, it must be because
the disorder has a genetic component, but anything less than a 100% concordance rate in MZ
twins shows schizophrenia must have an environmental factor.…read more

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The dividing line between behaviour is sudden. For example IQ scores for which one score
would be classed as normal while another would be considered abnormal.
The definition does not account for whether the behaviour is desirable or not. For example a
high IQ score, which would be classed as abnormal may well be desirable.
This means that high functioning individuals such as geniuses are classified as abnormal.…read more

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Axis 5 (GAF): is the global assessment of functioning scale, which ranges from 100-0; 0 being
in danger of hurting oneself and 100 being a superior level of functioning.
Briefly outline the changes to the DSM and explain why revisions have been necessary:
An example of a revision came in 1974 when homosexuality was removed as a form of mental
disorder and replaced with sexual orientation disturbance.…read more

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Describe and evaluate studies looking at the validity of the DSM
Lahey et al (2006) found that there was good predictive validity in relation to ADHD diagnosed
children's social and academic functioning over a six year period.
Andrews et al (1999) looked at how far DSM IV agreed with ICD 10. They found good
agreement on disorders such as depression but poor agreement on PTSD; so validity appears
to depend on the disorder.…read more

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The DSM III (text revisions) takes account of cultural issues in acknowledging culture bound
There has been an attempt to remove focus from bizarre symptoms in schizophrenia, as it
was acknowledged that such symptoms are open to interpretation and that there are cultural
issues in such interpretation.
Other features/symptoms of schizophrenia that are listed in DSM could lead to cultural bias.
`First-rank' symptoms (like `bizarreness') should perhaps receive less emphasis.…read more

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There is an increase of activity at dopamine synapses which is associated with increased
feelings of paranoia and explains why hallucinations may occur as the brain is too active.
It is possible that an increase in dopamine in one site in the brain (the mesolimbic pathway)
contributes to positive symptoms of schizophrenia
Problems with dopamine functioning in another site (the mesocortial pathway) contributes to
negative symptoms.…read more


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