Chronology of the Civil Rights Movement

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Chronology of the Civil Rights Movement
1776 Declaration of Independence
1787 Constitution signed
This document, signed on September 17, 1787, established the
government of the United States. The Constitution of the United
States of America is the supreme law, the foundation and source of
the legal authority underlying the existence of the United States of
America; the Federal Government of the United States; and all the
State & local governments. It provides the framework for the
organization of the United States Government. It was significant as it
established all the future laws of the USA, permanently affecting the
lives of the American people. Supreme Court decisions such as Brown
vs. Topeka hinged on interpretations of the constitution made by the
incumbent members of the Supreme Court, this makes the politics of
supreme court judges immensely important. Appeals to the
constitution were made by both sides in the Civil Rights debate,
notably King in his Washington speech and Eastland in his opposition
to the Brown decision.
1861-5 Civil War
When eleven southern slave states declared their secession from the
U.S. and formed the Confederate States of America, they fought
against the U.S. Federal government, which was supported by all the
free states and the five border slave states in the north, largely over
the issue of slavery. The victory of the North under Lincoln effectively
ended slavery in the United States, restoring the Union, and
strengthening the role of the federal government. The social, political,
economic and racial issues of the war decisively shaped the
reconstruction era that lasted to 1877, and brought changes that
helped make America a united super power.
1865 13th Amendment abolishes slavery
1865-77 Reconstruction
After civil war the southern economy had collapsed, north was less
effected economically. Andrew Johnson tried to resolve the unity of
the USA, re-unite the rebellious southern states to the union. The
freed slaves created opposition within congress.
Andrew Johnson failed in the south for his plan of reconstruction;
ratifying the 13th amendment, of slaves being illegal.
1866 Civil Rights Act
Ku Klux Klan established
1868 14th Amendment gives blacks full citizenship
The 14th Amendment was a means of guarding the rights of each
citizen to equal protection under the law. It was later cited in the case
of Brown vs. Topeka as justification for the desegregation of schools.
1870 15th Amendment states that voting rights cannot be denied by
It was a balancing act to advance the cause of black enfranchisement

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Republican support of states in
the north and west. It was largely in order to placate the northern
states that the 15th Amendment allowed states to impose their own
voting qualifications, while at the same time accepting the principle of
the amendment. It led to conflict and dissatisfaction. Western states
such as California excluded the Chinese from voting. Rhode Island
demanded that foreign-born immigrants should own property to the
value of $134 in order to qualify for the vote.…read more

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African Americans were able to use examples from their divisions in
the war as civil rights propoganda such as using the examples of
soldiers being beaten up as soon as they got back from war and by
saying to other African Americans, you're willing to fight for the
whites in the war yet you're not willing to fight for your own people's
civil rights.…read more

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Jim Crow" laws in the
40's, the "Sit-ins" of the 50's, the "Freedom Rides" of the 60's and
the Washington March in 1963.
1943 Race riots in Detroit, Harlem and Mobile, Alabama
The blacks were often the poorest in the community, suffering from
de facto segregation, and in 1943 tensions raised by intolerance
caused by the demands of war broke out in riots. In Detroit 25 black
and 9 white people were killed, 15 of the black people were killed by
the Police.…read more

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Cold War begins
Decolonisation begins (new African ambassadors face
segregation in Washington)
1946 Demobilised Black GIs attacked on return to South
Black G.I s on their arrival home in the Southern States were not
greeted as heroes. Instead they were being pulled off the buses by
angry mobs and beaten up. This served to alert Truman to the
conditions in the South and provided reason to establish a civil rights
committee which produced the report, "To secure these rights".…read more

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African Americans are enrolled or taught.
Appellant filed a complaint requesting injunctive relief, alleging that
the action of the school authorities and the statutes upon which their
action was based were unconstitutional and deprived him of the
equal protection of the laws. United States Supreme Court case
reversed the lower court decision upholding the efforts of the
state-supported University of Oklahoma to adhere to the state law
requiring African-Americans to be provided instruction on a
segregated basis.…read more

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The unanimous (9-0) decision stated that "separate
educational facilities are inherently unequal." It set an important
precedent for a fundamental issue ­ education and paved way for
integration and the Civil Rights Movement. It was not particularly
effective immediately afterwards as they failed to create a timescale
and a deadline for this. But Brown II rules integration to proceed `with
all deliberate speed' in the following year.…read more

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COINTELPRO operates under J Edgar Hoover's jurisdiction
1957 SCLC established
Southern Christian leadership conference, the leader being MLK
became an important organisation in the civil rights movement. It was
formed to widen the participation in the civil rights movement, and
widening activity.
This promoted MLK and acknowledged as a major leader in the civil
rights movement. Kings horizon's broadened and reacted to
significant events, with King remaining as the dominant figure.…read more

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EEOC created
1961-2 Albany Movement
The protest included campaigns to get black people on the voting
register and desegregation in public places. The police response of
provoking violence did not work, as the protesters remained under
King's philosophy and did not react to the violence.
The campaign was a failure as it did not produce local change, SNCC
were becoming impatient with King's actions as it was a too gentle
policy.…read more

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Kennedy introduces Civil Rights Bill
After outlining specific recommendations and lining up bipartisan
support, the Kennedy administration sent its proposal for a bill to
Congress on June 19. One week later, President Kennedy told
Congress that the new civil rights laws he proposed involve every
American's right to vote, to go to school, to get a job, and to be
served in a public place without arbitrary discrimination--rights which
most Americans take for granted.…read more



Very helpful :D

just some guy

great detail and very helpful:)

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