Presidents during the movement:
1945 - 52 - Truman - Red Scare, McCarthy (used his power to use an Executive Order to de-segregate the army)
1952 - 61 - Eisenhower - Red Scare, McCarthy (Gradualism)
1961 - 63 - Kennedy - Cuban Missile Crisis
1963 - 68 - Johnson - Cuban Missile Crisis
1968 - 74 - Nixon
Martin Luther King Successes/Failures
- Montgomery Bus Boycott - 1955/6 - Hit economy hard, showed great organisation & support.
- Freedom Rides - 1961 - Exposed brutality
- March on Washington - 1963 - Showed significance of support and peace
- Birmingham Campaign - 1963 - Media coverage, Bull Connor
- Civil Rights Act - 1964 - Seperate but equal
- Albany - 1961 - Unsuccessful peaceful protest
- Chicago - 1966 - Could not relate to South (North had big cities & poverty)
Civil Rights Organisations
NAACP - Founded in New York (King was part of it) took legal action and gave legal advice
SNCC - Southern students founded it, organised sit-ins in white only areas
Black Panthers - Violent southern group, idea of black pride
SCLC - First President was Marting Luther King, founded in Atlanta, Georgia (southern)
De Jure - legal fact
De Facto - social opinion
Radicalism - violent behaviour for a cause
Moderates - peaceful protests for a cause
Segregation - separating two groups of people, segregationists - people who support it, white southerners mostly
State laws - states can impose their own laws but can be overruled by government
Chronological Order of Events
Slavery abolished - 1865
1954 May 17 – The Supreme Court rules against the "separate but equal" doctrine in Brown v. Board of Education of, Kans. and in Bolling v. Sharpe, thus overturning Plessy v. Ferguson "With all deliberate speed"
1955 January 15 – President D. Eisenhower signs Executive Order, establishing the President's Committee on Government Policy to enforce a nondiscrimination policy in Federal employment.
1955 May 31 – The Supreme Court rules in "Brown II" that desegregation must occur with "all deliberate speed".
Chronological Order of Events Cont.
1955/6 Montgomery Bus Boycott
1957 September – President Dwight Eisenhower federalizes the National Guard and also orders US Army troops to ensure Little Rock Central High School in Arkansas is integrated. Federal and National Guard troops escort the Little Rock Nine (9 particularly clever black students integrated) Uproar.
1957 September 27 – Civil Rights Act of 1957 signed by President Eisenhower.
Chronological Order of Events Cont.
1961 - Freedom rides
1963 - March on Washington
1963 - Birmingham campaign
1965 August 6 – Voting Rights Act of 1965 signed by President Johnson
1966 - Chicago failure
Nation of Islam
SNCC (closer to radicals)
SCLC (closer to radicals)
White supremacists used intimidating groups and ideas to keep segregation in place, also used to scare blacks.
KKK were used to scare black civillians as they would pick up black men which they had judged to have done something wrong and, kill/torture/lynch them and leave them for public display. They rarely came to justice over these killings.
In southern states they introduced a tax for the vote, and also added literacy tests before being able to vote, many blacks were at this time uneducated and therefore unable to vote.
Martin Luther King
Leader or lead?
King had been described as more of a hinderance than a help.
King appeared to turn up at events and spoke, never really did anything and was from a fairly decent background.
Was an influential speaker but never seemed to help the cause too much.
However, his idea of peaceful protests and non-violence was a very successful, respectful movement.