Children's Language Acquisition Complete Revision Guide

This guide contains theorists and notes of the speaking, reading and writing sections.

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IB 2016
Child Acquisition Notes
Speaking
Nelson Child's First Words
In her study of children's 18 first words, she classified words like this:
Naming things Actions / Events Personal / Social Modifying
Ball Give Yes Dirty
Dog Put Hi Nice
Juice Sit No More
Mummy Stop Byebye This
Daddy Go Allgone
Milk Up
Cat Stop
Rescorla ­ Over and Under Extension
Over Extension
Over extension is when a child extends the meaning to other objects.
Types of over extension:
Analogical when a child uses a word to mean another word that has similar qualities or characteristics.
E.g. 'moon' for `ball'.
Categorical ­ when a child uses a word to mean another word in the same category.
E.g. `dog' for `cat'.
Statement ­ when a child uses a word to indicate something more.
E.g. `doll' to mean `the doll's bed'
Under Extension
Under extension is when a child restricts the number of references of a word to the original context or when
the meaning of a word is narrower than usual. E.g. `clock' may only mean a wall clock.
Crystal ­ Features of Acquisition
The phonological features of acquisition are (in order of appearance):
1. Stopped sounds
2. Consonants used at the beginnings o f words
3. Consonants used at the end of words
4. Labial consonants appear
5. Friction sound replaced by stopped sounds
6. Front of mouth sounds preferred to back of mouth sounds
7. Consonant clusters avoided
8. Syllables are repeated
9. Children's sounds will not be consistent
Halliday ­ Functions of Language
The functions of language are:
Instrumental ­ expresses needs
Regulatory ­ tell other what to do
Interactional ­ forms relationships
Personal ­ expresses feelings, opinion or identity
Heuristic ­ to gain knowledge
Imaginative ­ tell stories
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Representational / informational ­ convey facts
Dore ­ Infant Language Functions
The functions of language are:
Labelling naming or identifying a person
Repeating ­ repeating what an adult speaker has said
Answering ­ a question
Requesting action ­ demanding food or a toy
Calling ­ getting attention by shouting
Greeting ­ `hello'
Protesting ­ objecting to requests
Practising ­ repeating language when no adult is present
Brown ­ Learning Grammar
Learning of inflections and grammatical words are found in the following order:
1.…read more

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2. Moves `no'/'not' inside the sentence
3. Attaches the negative to the auxiliary verbs. E.g. "No, I don't want to go to nursery. I am not"
Bellugi Pronouns
There are three stages of pronouns:
1. The child uses their own name
2. The child recognises the `I' / `me' pronouns ­ used in different places in the sentence
3.…read more

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Omission of inflections such as plurals and possessives
McNeill
Children need to understand grammatical rules before they are able to use it.
Bancroft
Turntaking.
Reading Notes
Reading Strategies
Skills required to read:
Follow the line smoothly from left to right, top to bottom
Recognise shapes of letters and words (e.g.…read more

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2. They begin to recognise each grapheme, sound out each phoneme, blend the sounds together to
produce the word phonetically
3. Memorise phonemes through multisensory approaches and usually in wholeclass learning groups
Bruner ­ LASS (Language Acquisition Support System)
Parentchild interations are fourphased:
1. Gaining attention getting the baby's attention
2. Query asking the baby what the object in the picture is
3. Label telling the baby what the object in the picture is
4.…read more

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0 Prereading and Up to 6 Pretend reading (turning
pseudoreading pages repeating
previously read stories
Some letter/word
recognition
Predicting single words
1 Initial reading and 67 Reading simple texts
decoding containing highfrequency
lexis
2 Confirmation and fluency 78 Reading texts more
quickly/fluently
3 Reading for learning 914 Reading for knowledge
4 Multiplicity and complexity 1417 Responding critically to
what they read
Analysing texts
5 Construction and 18+ Reading selectively and
reconstruction forming opinions about
what they've read
Adams
The typical middle class child…read more

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7 ­ Correct Spelling Most words are spelled correctly.
Rothery ­ Framework for categorising and evaluating children's writing
Category Features
Observation/comment Writer makes observation and follows with evaluative comment or mixes
Recount Chronological sequence of events, e.g. recount of school trip.…read more

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