Literacy Revision Booklet

How children learn to write and read - includes reference to key terminology and theories

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Language Acquisition
Key Terms
Cohesion ­ the way in which
Reading a text appears logical and
well constructed.
Reading is often encountered only when the child enters an established Grapheme ­ a written
symbol, letter or combination
curriculum within the school environment. Teaching a child how to read is
of letters that is used to
essentially just giving them the `tools' to do the work themselves. represent a phoneme.
Books for young children tend to be enjoyable and act as a shared experience
­ introducing children to stories and storytelling.
Reading schemes for school-age children are slightly different in that Theory
although they are entertaining, have been created to help in the formal
learning process. Heath
Reading within the Home
When children are about 8, they become independent readers and although
School literacy experiences
books for them are still entertaining, informative and instructive ­ they are
reflect a middle-class value.
centred on them as active, solo readers.
What Does a Child Need to Know? Parent-child interactions with
books are four phased:
Children need to understand that written texts:
1. Gaining attention
1. Reflect the relationship between graphemes and phonemes. 2. Query
2. Have cohesion, with different parts interconnecting. 3. Label
3. Are organised in a particular way, with chapter headings, page 4. Feedback
numbers &c.
4. Differ in their organisation according to genre.
5. Represent the original culture, following its rules and conventions.

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Language Acquisition
Key Terms
Phonics ­ a system of
Learning to Read teaching reading and spelling
that stresses basic symbol-
sound relationships and their
use in decoding words; a
Look and Say system used especially in the
early stages of reading.
Children learn the shape of words, not breaking them down phonologically.
With the `look and say' method, children learn to recognise whole words or
sentences rather than individual phonemes.…read more

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Language Acquisition
Key Terms
Cueing ­ the strategies used
Cues to help decode written texts
Alongside the phonological methods which children can use to decode the Miscue ­ errors made by
children when reading.
written word, writers of children's reading books build cues into their texts.
This can especially be seen in reading schemes.
Graphophonic Looking at the shape of words, linking these to familiar
graphemes/words to interpret them.…read more

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Language Acquisition
Reading Development Chall
Reading Motivations & Stages
As a child grows, their
# Description Age Key Characteristics Words
motivations for reading
0 Pre-reading Up to `Pretend' reading
and pseudo- 6 6 Some letter & word recognition, esp. of own name change as does their linguistic
reading Predicting single words or the next stage of a story understanding of lexical
1 Initial reading 6-7 Reading simple texts containing high- 600 items.
and decoding frequency lexis.…read more

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Language Acquisition
Key Terms
Convergence ­ a process of
Stages of Writing linguistic chance in which
people adjust their accent,
dialect and speech style to
Writing develops at different rates in different children; however the those of others.
majority pass through discernable stages. These are:
Orthography ­ the study of
the use of letters and the
rules of spelling in a
Letter-like forms language.…read more

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Language Acquisition
Key Terms
Register ­ the formality and
Generic Awareness tone of a text; vocabulary
choices and grammatical
constructions contribute to
Early writing is often focussed on gaining the stylistic features of a specific the overall tone.
genre. The below research demonstrates how this can be applied for a
Observation/ The writer makes an observation and follows this with
Comment either an evaluative comment or mixes the two. Rothery
Categories of Children's Writing
Recount Usually a chronological sequence of events.…read more

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Language Acquisition
Key Terms
Digraph ­ a graphic unit in
Spelling which two symbols combine,
or any sequence of two
letters produced as a single
Stages of Spelling
Homophone ­ a lexical item
Pre-phonemic Imitate writing, mainly scribble and using pretend writing, that has the same
some letter shapes are decipherable. pronunciation as another.
Semi-phonetic Link letter shapes and sounds, using this to write words.
Phonetic Understand that all phonemes can be represented by
graphemes, words become complete.…read more


Katie Evans

Really useful - esp the theory :)

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