What the Texts? Are who are in them? What is there relationship? How will this effect the caregivers and childs speech?
Adjacency pairs: These are the pairs of utterance that commonly occur, such as question-answer introduction-greeting
Conversational implicature: This is a meaning that is conveyed when one of grice’s maxims is deliberately flouted.
Deictics: Deictics are words which point backwards and forwards and extra textually and which serve to situate a speaker or writer in relation to what is said.in ‘I’m going to get some wine from the shop over there’, the main deictic words are ‘that’ and ‘there’.
Discourse markers: these are words such as ‘well’ and ‘right’ which are normally used to mark boundaries in conversation between one topic and the next. They can also signpost relationships. Between utterance.
Ellipsis: Ellipsis refers to the omission of part of structure. It is normally used for reasons of economy and, in spoken discourse, can create a sense of informality. For example, in the sentence, ‘she went to the party and danced all night’, the pronoun ‘she’ is.
Exchange: A basic pattern of structuring interaction that often occurs in classroom conversation. It consists of three moves known as initiation, response or feedback.
Filler: Fillers are items which do not carry conventional meaning, but which are inserted, usually in spoken discourse, to allow time to think, to create a pause, and so on.
Frame theory: This theory argues that past experience help us to understand conversation. From our past conversation we bring mental frameworks that help us to understand and anticipate what is going to happen next in a conversation. As we talk we pick up cues (or frames) that enable us to recognise the situation and structure our response in an appropriate manner.
Grice’s maxims: The co-operative principle was formulated by grice (1975) to explain the assumptions made by people in constructing talk. The speaker should follow four maxims: be brief, be true, be relevant and be clear. The speaker is following these four maxims.
Hedges: Hedges are words and/or a phrase which softens and weakens the force with which is something is said. examples of hedges are: ‘kind of ‘,’sort of’,’ by any chance ‘,’ as it were’,’ admittedly’.
Idiolect: This is language special or peculiar to an individual. It is sometimes known as a ‘personal’ dialect.
Insertion sequence: A sequence of utterance separating an adjacency pair:
Do you want a drink?
What have you got?
Everything you can think of including a cup of tea!
Well, I’ll have tea then
Interactional language: The language used when people relate to each other – the language used for socialising.
Intonation: This is the rise and fall in pitch that occurs in spoken languages.
Prosodic features: These are features of the voice such as speed, volume, intonation and stress.
Pseudo-agreement: This is used to save face. It occurs when one speaker appears at first to agree with another. In continuing the utterance, however, the speaker expresses a viewpoint that…