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Alexander II: (1855-1881)
Trial by jury ­ ensured fair trials
Emancipation act ­ peasants no longer serfs, freed from land owner, had to pay redemption
Zemstva (elected council) ­ local elected councils, dealt with local matters
Justices of the peace ­ local officials to keep law and…

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Political opposition in Russia (up until 1905):
Aims Supporters Methods How Radical?
Believed that a working Exclusive group Planning Very radical
class revolution should Small, tight-knit Violent revolution
Social take place ASAP No co-operation with Control from one leader
Democrats: Build a socialist society other parties (Lenin)
Bolsheviks immediately Expected…

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Was a fierce supporter of absolute monarchy
Had the job of industrialising Russia
Plan to industrialise Russia:
1. Government fund key industries (iron, steel, coal and machinery ­ capital goods)
2. Government funds this partly with loans from abroad (France and Belgium)
3. Other funding comes from high taxation on…

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Economic discontent: Witte's rapid industrialisation: Russo-Japanese War:
Taxes on the peasants and Financed by loans and taxation What happened?
workers were high Huge growth in heavy industries Wanted to expand empire but
Workers wages were low Impact of this on peasants and came into direct conflict with
Peasants desperately wanted…

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How dangerous was the revolution?

Involvement of
Event What happened? revolutionaries Who would this scare most, why?
February 1905 The government
400,000 workers went on strike ­ by Railway strikes were crucial
the end of 1905, over 2.7 million No involvement for movement of troops to
Strikes workers had…

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Paramilitaries such as the Black Hundreds were encouraged and funded by the Tsars
government to restore order by publicly intimidating and using violence against
opponents of the Tsar (e.g. ­ forcing protestors to kiss the imperial flag and beat them
up )

2. Use of compromises:
The October Manifesto

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