CCEA Home Economics: Protein

This document covers:

  • Functions and sources of protein
  • Essential and Non-Essential amino acids
  • Composition of protein (HBV, LBV)
  • Deficiency in protein
  • Coagulation
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  • Created by: Stephen
  • Created on: 28-09-11 15:45
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What are proteins?
They are made up of the elements
Makes new cells (growth)
Repairs old cells
Supplies energy
Manufactures important body chemicals such as enzymes and hormones.
What are amino acids?
They are simple units which make up protein
There are 20 which are standard, each with their own job to do in the body.
11/20 are considered non essential or dispensable because the human body
can produce them
9/20 are known as essential or indispensable because are body cannot
produce them so we must get them from our food
10 are essential in children and 8 are essential in adults- children have two
more as they are growing
Composition of protein
High biological value (HBV) Proteins which contain all the essential amino
acids. Examples of HBV proteins are meat, fish, eggs and milk. One
vegetable source which is Soya but they are mostly animal sourced.
Low biological value (LBV) Protein which contain some but not all of the
essential amino acids needed by humans. Examples of (LBV) proteins are
wheat, oats, rye, barley, maize and rice. One animal source which is gelatine
but mainly vegetable sources.
Complementary Proteins
Vegetable foods which are good sources of protein usually lack one or more of the
essential amino acids. Proteins from a single celled vegetable source are said to
have (LBV). Mixtures of proteins from plant food taken together can complement
each other by supplying the full range of amino acids.
Examples are
Beans on toast
Rice and peas
Vegetable chilli and rice
How much protein do we need every day?

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Needs change for the amount of protein we need. The following have increased
needs in protein.
Babies and Children- require a lot of protein as they are growing rapidly
Adolescents- require more protein for their rapid spurt of growth
Pregnant women- Require more protein to cater for their growing baby
Nursing mothers- Require more than normal for milk production during
breast feeding (lactation)
Excess of protein (too much)
Cause complications to people with liver and kidney problems.…read more

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May lead to death
Treatment- Add food high in energy and protein to the diet.
When heated a protein structure unravels and begins to take on a new
structure (Denaturation)
Useful in cooking
This is why when heat is applied to egg protein, the egg white changes from
liquid to solid ­ new structure
This is called coagulation
The eggs `coagulate'- the protein breaks down (denatures and forms a new
If overheated the protein will become tough and indigestible.…read more

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