CCEA Home Economics: Carbohydrates Revision

This revision document deals with carbohydrates

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  • Created on: 27-09-11 17:14
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What are Carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates are made up of the elements:
Hydrogen and
There are three main groups of carbohydrates:
Non-Starch polysaccharides
What are the functions of Carbohydrates?
The main function is to provide energy. During digestion carbohydrates are
changed into glucose which is used for energy. Excess intakes of glucose can be
converted into fatty acids and stored as body fat.
Sugars are referred to as `Simple Carbohydrates.' There are two types of sugars
which are intrinsic and extrinsic.
Intrinsic Sugars
Sugars which are incorporated into the cellular structure e.g. sugars found in
unprocessed foods such as fruit and vegetables. No adverse effect on health.
Extrinsic Sugars
1 Sugars not bound into a cellular structure e.g. the lactose. (Milk sugar) found in
dairy products. These do not have an adverse effect on your health.
2 However, they can also be termed as NMES- Non Milk Extrinsic Sugars. These
are often found in confectionary and fizzy drinks. NMES can cause dental decay,
diabetes and obesity if eaten too often.
Sugars include glucose, fructose (found in fruit), maltose and lactose (found in
milk). Sugars such as glucose provide instant energy when it is needed. They are
`empty calories' which means they have very little nutritional value.
Sources of sugar:
Fizzy drinks
Sugar coated cereals
Sugar can also be termed as sucrose.
Sugar and tooth decay

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Sugar is the main cause of tooth decay
One third of all the people over sixteen in Britain do not have their own
It is not the quantity of sugar but how often sugary foods are eaten, which
causes the most damage.
How to reduce tooth decay:
Go to dentist from an early age.
Go to the dentist for a check up every 4-6 months.
Brush teeth twice a day
Try to reduce sugar intake
Encourage children to drink milk for calcium.…read more

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NSP Non-Starch-Polysaccharides
Dietary fibre is know as NSP Non-Starch-Polysaccharides
Sources of NSP
Whole grain cereals
Fruit and Vegetables (with skin on if possible)
Pulse vegetables e.g. beans, peas and lentils
Root vegetables such as carrots, turnip
Wholemeal bread, flour and pasta
Brown rice.
Types of NSP
Insoluble- absorbs water and increases in bulk. This helps the stools to
become soft and bulky to keep the gut in good working order. This
prevents constipation.…read more

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Is needed for the digestive system to function properly.
May prevent various bowel disorders such as constipation, diverticular
disease, bowel cancer, appendicitis and hemorrhoids (piles)
Revision questions
Q1) Fill in the missing words:
Carbohydrates are mainly used to provide e__________. During digestion
carbohydrates are changed into g________ which is used for _________.
Excess intakes of glucose can be converted into f_____________ and stored as
body fat.…read more


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