CCEA Home Economics: Dietary disorders

This document covers:

  • Coronary Heart Disease
  • Diabetes
  • Dental caries
  • Hypertension
  • Iron deficiency anaemia
  • Obesity
  • Osteoporosis
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  • Created by: Stephen
  • Created on: 27-09-11 17:21
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Dietary Disorders
Coronary Heart Disease
Dental caries
Iron deficiency anaemia
Coronary Heart Disease
How do you get it?
Coronary arteries supply heart with blood. CHD occurs when one or more of these
is blocked or narrowed due to a build up of fatty deposits on its walls. This is
known as atherosclerosis. It restricts blood getting to the heart which causes
damage to its muscle and can cause a heart attack.
Some of the risk factors of CHD are: -
Cigarette smoking
Raised blood cholesterol
High fat diet
High blood pressure
Lack of physical exercise
Being male
Increased age.
A healthy, well balanced diet reduces risk of CHD because eating healthily helps
Maintain a healthy weight
Lower blood cholesterol levels
Keep blood pressure in safe limits
Prevent atherosclerosis
What is linked with getting CHD and what helps lower risk of CHD-
Saturated Fat- a high intake is linked with CHD as it raises LDL cholesterol
levels. Sources include butter, cake and sausages
Unsaturated fat- (polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats) have been shown to
lower LDL (bad) cholesterol levels. Sources include oily fish and olive oil.
High levels of cholesterol increase risk of CHD

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Higher intakes are associated with lower risk of heart disease. Soluble fibre
reduces cholesterol levels.
Nutrients such as A, C AND E (antioxidants) offer some protection against CHD.
Fruit and veg. are good sources of these nutrients.
Too much salt in diet is linked with high blood pressure (hypertension) which
increases risk of CHD.
Lack of physical exercise
Heart doesn't get exercise it needs to ensure it functions properly. Inactive
people are more likely to be overweight.…read more

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What is it and how do you get it?
During digestion the body produces glucose and uses it for energy. A hormone
called insulin helps the glucose to enter cells and as this happens the level of
glucose in the blood drops.
Diabetes is a condition where the amount of glucose in blood is too high. This is
because the body doesn't produce enough insulin which is need or because the
insulin does not work effectively.…read more

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Leading an inactive lifestyle
Being inactive contributes to weight gain and increases risk of type 2 diabetes.
Family History
Risk increases if diabetes is in the family.…read more

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Periods of rapid growth
How can diet help?
Eat plenty of iron to provide haemoglobin which is needed to carry oxygen around
the body.
Take vitamin C rich foods to help absorb iron (especially non haem iron- plant
Factors that affect the absorption of iron and calcium:
Iron absorption is reduced by:
The presence of tannins found in tea.
Phytates found in cereals such as raw bran.
Oxalic acid found in rhubarb and spinage.…read more

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Genetic factors affecting appetite, metabolic rate and how the body stores
Irregular meals
Lack of daily exercise
Medicines that can cause weight gain.…read more

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Dental Caries
What is it and how do you get it?
Also known as tooth decay. This occurs when bacterial processes damage the hard
structure of a tooth. Surface of tooth breaks down progressively, resulting in a
hole in tooth called a dental cavity. If left untreated the disease can lead to pain,
tooth loss and infection.…read more

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Visit dentist regularly (every six months)
If taken when teeth are developing, as in the case of young children, it is
incorporated into structure of the teeth and gives added protection against acid
damage. It is possible to take too much fluoride which results in mottling of tooth
enamel. Can be found in some water (if added), toothpaste, fluoride tablets and
mouth wash
How to reduce tooth decay:
Go to dentist from an early age.…read more

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Atherosclerosis: narrowing of arteries
Stroke: haemorrhage or blood clot in brain
Aneurysm: dangerous expansion of the main artery either in the chest or the
abdomen, which becomes weakened and may rupture
Heart attack
Heart failure: reduced pumping ability
Kidney failure
Eye damage
Every adult or past middle age should know their numbers i.e. your weight,
height, blood pressure and cholesterol levels.
Also have regular blood pressure checks if there is a family tendency for
hypertension.…read more

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