CCEA Home Economics: Ages and Stages

This revision document covers the dietary requirements for those at different ages and stages

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  • Created on: 26-09-11 17:07
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Ages and stages
Below is a diagram to indicate the different `ages and stages' in a life cycle
Pre-Conception and pregnancy:
It is important for women planning to become pregnant to follow a healthy diet.
The diet before pregnancy can affect chances of having a successful pregnancy
and health of the baby when born.
Definition- Pregnancy is the period from conception (when the egg is
fertilised) to childbirth. Pregnancy normally lasts for 37-42 weeks.
Nutritional Targets:
The requirements for energy (calories) and protein increases slightly during
pregnancy. However, there is no need to eat for two. A pregnant woman should eat

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C and vitamin A
Nutritional needs:
Energy requirements-
Slightly higher during pregnancy
Extra energy needed for last three months, but not during the first six.
This is to allow for the rapid growth and development of the baby
during the last three months.
Requirements increase slightly during pregnancy.
Pregnant women should try to eat protein rich foods, such as fish, meat,
chicken, pulses every day.
This nutrient is needed for growth of the developing baby during the
last three months.…read more

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Vegetarians should take special care to ensure an adequate intake of
iron-rich foods.
Iron deficiency anaemia during pregnancy can increase the risk of foetus
having a low birth weight and developing iron deficiency anaemia during the
first year or two of life.
Liver should be avoided as it contains high levels of Vitamin A.
Strong tea and coffee contain high amount of tannins, which can reduce iron
absorption, therefore these drinks should be limited.…read more

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Pregnant women should avoid:
Raw or lightly cooked eggs. Products containing them
Raw or lightly cooked meat
Unpasteurised milk
Liver and liver products
Blue veined cheeses
Vitamin A
Essential for good health, however large intakes during early pregnancy have been
linked to birth defects. Liver should be avoided because of vitamin A content and
presence of bacteria listeria.
Rare flu-like illness caused by bacteria called listeria monocytogenes. Listeriosis
in birth may cause miscarriage, still-birth or severe illness in the new born baby.…read more

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Helps mother to loss excess fat stores gained during pregnancy
When women are breast feeding they should ensure their diet contains foods that
are good sources of energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc, as
well as B group vitamins and vitamins A,C and D. Energy needs increase during
breastfeeding, as the mother has to produce breast milk.…read more

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Include foods that contain iron as babies iron stores will have been used up
and iron prevents anaemia
Do not leave children unsupervised as they could choke
Gluten should be avoided encase the baby has coeliac disease
Babies meals should be small and frequent as they have small stomachs that
cant digest large portions of food
Advantages of prepared foods Disadvantages
Quick and easy Expensive
Range of products available May not provide full range of
Range of nutrients available Not eating same food as…read more

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Have sugary foods/drink as part of main meal
Avoid sipping of sugary drinks or sucking of sweets
Do not choose sticky foods which stay in mouth for long time
Use fluoride toothpaste/drops/tablets
Register child with dentist and visit regularly
Encourage children to drink milk
Encourage children to brush teeth twice a day
Low iron intake and anaemia- vulnerable children include vegetarians or
children on vegan diet and those given a weaning diet low in iron.…read more

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Girls need more iron
because of onset of menstruation.
Vitamin C and iron- vitamin C helps iron absorption
Calcium needed for healthy teeth development together with Vitamin D, helps make
bones strong.…read more

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A good mixed diet is important. There is increasing tendency for teenagers,
particularly girls, to control their weight by following inappropriate diets.
Care should be taken that dieting does not lead to dietary problems later in
Fruit and vegetables provide NSP and promote healthy skin
B vitamins in general e.g. niacin, thiamine and riboflavin.…read more

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Eat enough carbohydrate to keep going during exercise
Eat plenty of wholegrain breads and cereals, fruit and vegetables and
moderate amounts of milk, yogurt, lean meat, fish and eggs
Eat enough food for the amount of exercise taken
Drink plenty of fluid- we need more than the six to eight glasses of water
that are recommended a day.…read more


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