notes of the 2 year home economics course

the 244page book condensed down to 33pages selectingthe important bits :D hope it helps

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  • Created on: 10-04-12 18:50
Preview of notes of the 2 year home economics course

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Macro nutrients: protein, fat and protein (needed in large amounts).
Micro nutrients: vitamins, minerals and trace elements (needed in small amounts).
Enzymes: chemicals which cause foods to become rip or break down once harvested.
Preservatives: can be found naturally (eg. acids/fruit).
Diet: the food that you eat every day.
Special diets: diets used to reduce or increase something (eg. weight/ fibre intake).
Balanced diet: eating the right amounts of nutrients from a variety of foods every day for
our particular needs.
Different people need different energy intakes through their life.
Metabolic rate: the rate at which chemical reactions take place inside the body.
Antioxidants: help protect the body from polluting chemicals that get into the body.
Protein: made up of amino acids.
High biological value (HBV): proteins containing all of the essential amino acids.
Eg. milk, meat, fish, cheese, eggs, soya beans.
Low biological value (LBV): proteins that are missing one or more essential amino
Eg. Cereals, peas, beans (except soya beans), nuts and seeds.
Ovalbumin: protein in egg white.
Gluten: protein in wheat.
Collagen: protein in meat, connective tissue which binds body cells together.
Caseinogen: protein in cheese.
Lactoglobulin: protein in milk.
Deficiency causes: growth stop, loss of fat and muscle, hair and skin become dry,
hair thinning, digestive problems, diarrhoea, prone to infection, oedema (fluid under
skin), becoming thin and weak.
Excess protein: stored as fat.

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Triglyceride: chemical name for fat (one part fat and three part fatty acids).
Saturated fatty acids: single bonds (bad fats).
Unsaturated fatty acids + monounsaturated fatty acids + polyunsaturated
fatty acids: double bonds.
Hydrogenation: process where hydrogen is added to a liquid fat to made a solid fat.
Adipose tissue: where fat is stored under the skin.
Cholesterol: fatty substance made in the liver from what we eat.
Uses: insulates the body, protects the body against physical damage and provides fat
soluble vitamins.…read more

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Deficiency causes: the body uses energy from other sources ­ fat and protein, due
to this the body will lose weight. If there is still not enough protein from the muscles
are broken down and used as energy. This makes the body weak.
Uses: energy.
Water soluble vitamins
Water soluble vita/mins: vitamin B group and vitamin A.
Vitamin B group
Vitamin B1: thiamin
Function: helps to release energy from carbohydrates, helps the body to grow, helps
the nerves to work.…read more

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Function: helps release energy from food.
Sources: wide range of foods.
Vitamin B6: pyridoxine
Function: helps the body to use protein, fat and carbohydrate for different jobs.
Sources: found is small amount in a wide range of foods.
Deficiency: can lead to headakes, general aching weakness, anaemia and skin
Effects of processing and cooking: can be destroyed during cooking.
Vitamin B9: folate
A natural form of vitamin but can also be man made ­ called folic acid.…read more

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Sources: fruit and vegetables (especially black currants, citrus fruits, green peppers,
kiwi, green leafy vegetables, potatoes) live and milk.
Deficiency: anaemia (because not enough iron can be absorbed), scurvy (disease ­
symptoms: tiredness, weakness, bleeding of the gums, anaemia, poor wound
Effects of processing and cooking: destroyed by heat and exposure to oxygen,
dissolves easily in water.
Prevention of destruction: buy fresh, prepare at last minute, cook in little water,
serve straight away, use water they were cooked in.…read more

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Minerals and trace elements
Chemicals elements that do not contain carbon.
Minerals: needed by adults in quantities of between 1mg and 100mg a day eg.
Calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, chromium, copper,
manganese, selenium, sulphur and zinc. Load bearing exercises simulate bones to
take up minterals. This is essential so that the bones reach their peak bone mass
Trace elements: are needed in quantities of less that 1mg a day eg. Fluoride,
iodine, cobalt, molybdenum, silicon.…read more

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Too much: increase blood pressure- puts strain on body, damages kidneys.
Function: helps strength bones and enamel on teeth.
Sources: food that are found in sea water, tea and natural water supplies.
Deficiency: teeth are more likely to develop cavities.
Function: needed to make thyroid hormones in the thyroid glands (in the neck).
These are needed to control metabolic rate.
Sources: found in sea foods, found in dairy.…read more

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What is it: a group of natural plant materials that the body cannot digest. Fibre
includes cellulose (found in stems, leaves, leaf stalk, outside layers of seeds, beans,
vegetables and fruits) and pectin.
Function: helps get rid of solid waste matter. It makes faeces bulky, soft and heavy
so it can move easily through the intestines. It makes you feel full after a meal. It
helps reduce the amount of cholesterol in the blood.
Deficiency: constipation and diverticular disease.…read more

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This causes angina and can cause a heart attack. This can lead to
heart failer and death
Symptoms: breathlessness, weakness, feeling sick, feeling sweaty, chest pain which
spreads to the arms etc.
What causes blockages: the walls become blocked by a fatty substance called
atheroma. The blood then starts to become semi solid because the platelets stick
to each other and on the artery . This is called thrombosis. This takes a couple of
years.…read more

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The maximum pressure in the arteries when the heart contracts.
Diastolic: second beat made by the upper chambers contracting. Pushing
blood down into the lower chambers.
This pressure of the blood during the relaxation phase between hear beats.
Factors that increase the risk: eating salty foods, not being physically active, being
stressed, drinking a lot of alcohol, smoking, being overweight or obese and being
related to people with high blood pressure.
Effects: CHD or/and CVD and death.…read more


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