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Macro nutrients: protein, fat and protein (needed in large amounts).

Micro nutrients: vitamins, minerals and trace elements (needed in small amounts).

Enzymes: chemicals which cause foods to become rip or break down once harvested.

Preservatives: can be found naturally (eg. acids/fruit).

Diet: the food that you eat every day.


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Triglyceride: chemical name for fat (one part fat and three part fatty acids).

Saturated fatty acids: single bonds (bad fats).

Unsaturated fatty acids + monounsaturated fatty acids + polyunsaturated
fatty acids: double bonds.

Hydrogenation: process where hydrogen is added to a liquid fat to made a solid fat.

Adipose tissue:…

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Deficiency causes: the body uses energy from other sources ­ fat and protein, due
to this the body will lose weight. If there is still not enough protein from the muscles
are broken down and used as energy. This makes the body weak.

Uses: energy.

Water soluble vitamins

Water soluble…

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Function: helps release energy from food.

Sources: wide range of foods.

Vitamin B6: pyridoxine

Function: helps the body to use protein, fat and carbohydrate for different jobs.

Sources: found is small amount in a wide range of foods.

Deficiency: can lead to headakes, general aching weakness, anaemia and skin

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Sources: fruit and vegetables (especially black currants, citrus fruits, green peppers,
kiwi, green leafy vegetables, potatoes) live and milk.

Deficiency: anaemia (because not enough iron can be absorbed), scurvy (disease ­
symptoms: tiredness, weakness, bleeding of the gums, anaemia, poor wound

Effects of processing and cooking: destroyed by heat…

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Minerals and trace elements

Chemicals elements that do not contain carbon.

Minerals: needed by adults in quantities of between 1mg and 100mg a day eg.

Calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, chromium, copper,
manganese, selenium, sulphur and zinc. Load bearing exercises simulate bones to
take up minterals. This is essential…

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Too much: increase blood pressure- puts strain on body, damages kidneys.


Function: helps strength bones and enamel on teeth.

Sources: food that are found in sea water, tea and natural water supplies.

Deficiency: teeth are more likely to develop cavities.


Function: needed to make thyroid hormones in the…

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What is it: a group of natural plant materials that the body cannot digest. Fibre
includes cellulose (found in stems, leaves, leaf stalk, outside layers of seeds, beans,
vegetables and fruits) and pectin.

Function: helps get rid of solid waste matter. It makes faeces bulky, soft and heavy
so it…

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becomes damaged. This causes angina and can cause a heart attack. This can lead to
heart failer and death

Symptoms: breathlessness, weakness, feeling sick, feeling sweaty, chest pain which
spreads to the arms etc.

What causes blockages: the walls become blocked by a fatty substance called
atheroma. The blood then…

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The maximum pressure in the arteries when the heart contracts.

Diastolic: second beat made by the upper chambers contracting. Pushing
blood down into the lower chambers.

This pressure of the blood during the relaxation phase between hear beats.

Factors that increase the risk: eating salty foods, not being physically active,…


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