Home Economics: Resource Management

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Inter-relationship between time, money and energy

Human energy- house design eg smooth easy to maintain surfaces, plenty of accessible storage space. design and layout of the home can save human energy if it is made easier to clean.

Fuel energy- can include structures such as insulation, central heating (add a jacket to boiler), solar power, bungalows more expensive to heat than homes more roof, time switches can be installed for hot water/heating so only when needed, thermostats, radiators with individual thermo. lag tank and hot water pipes, turn off appliances on stand by

Time- employing someone else to do chores, shop around and save money, women working so less time for chores etc, labour saving equipment in home to save time, iplayer/sky plus, chores spread out so all family members do their part, must include time for leisure too.

Money- prioritise what is the most important; household bills are most, some paid monthly/quarterly. annual bills such as car tax. pension schemes (can contribute to), savings for holidays or emergencies, subscriptions, clothes/personal spending, unforeseen emergencies, energy costs may be higher for elderly, private health plans??

There should be a good budget plan in system so that you do not overspend/ have money available for times of need. 

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Factors affecting how resources are managed.












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Factors affecting how time, energy and money are m












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Management of resources in response to social, eco

Social Factors - 

  • personality affects activities/leisure time, also salary, and where an individual lives
  • clothing/fashion/makeup may be an important part of expenditure.
  • need to celebrate special occasions/achievements

Technological Factors -

  • advertising/marketing much more sophisticated; improved transport easier to get places.
  • internet a MASSIVE factor, easy access to knowledge and services. 

Economic Factors -

  • amount of £ available to indidivudual/household to meet their needs, easily available cash 24/7 
  • cost of living is increasing, food fuel heating bills more £££, house prices rising
  • rise in interest rates to try and decrease consumer spending

Cultural Factors - 

  • changing role of women, rise in single parent fams, diverse society, influence of religion/culture

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Sources of income for individuals and households.

Wages - a fixed regular payment earned for work or services, typically paid on a daily or weekly basis.

Salaries -  a fixed regular payment, typically paid on a monthly basis.

Pensions - There are different types of pensions available. Firstly there is a personal pension of which sums of money are paid on a regular basis by an individual. Secondly there is a workplace pension in which your employer contributes to your pension monthly as well as your own contributions. Lastly there is a state pension, in which the government pays usually a small sum of money for your pension.

Allowances - this could come from your parents/relatives and be a set amount of money given on a daily basis. There could also be allowances that come from your employer, such as being given a company car.

Welfare benefits - these come from the government and are provided to those who need them. vunerable groups include single parents, mentally/physically ill, unemployed.

Investments - this has become more popular as people have become more knowledgable about how to invest.

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Methods of payment (advantages and disadvantages)

adavantages in PINK, disadvantages in BLUE

Cash - no authorization is needed to use this as a method of payment, useful when buying small things, quick, easy, transactions completed immediately, convinient!! must be counted, can be easily stolen, not suitable when carrying out larger purchases, can be bulky to carry around if lots of small coins, don't need to remember a PIN etc, easily lost.

Direct Debit - saves time bc it takes out money automatically, always on TIME, improves credit, more secure. must have enough £ in bank to carry this out, mistakes may occur, difficult to stop debit payments.

Standing order (REGULAR PAYMENTS) - useful when you cant use direct debits, can use them to move money between your accounts, pay exactly the amount YOU choose. Need to be over 16/18, if you dont have enough money bank wont pay which could lead to OVERDRAFT fees, 

Credit card - guaranteed instant payment, can be used for online purchases, enables the cardholder to borrow money. takes time for the money to be received, a fee must be paid to the bank, interest is added to any amount not paid off, EXPENSIVE!!!

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Methods of payment cntd

Store card - discounts, special offers, points to spend in store. usually only spendable in one store, high interest rates, can be easy to overspend.

Credit agreements - sets out terms and conditions easilyinterest 

Debit card - only able to spend what you have in your bank account, exactly like using a credit card but without the interest added to whats not paid off. wouldnt be able to make purchases that you couldn't afford eg cant overspend


Cheques - safer than cash as not easily stolen, better when carrying out larger transactions, don't have to pay sum of money immediately. can take a few days to 'clear', not as widely accepted anymore, fraud can be more easily carried out.

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Financial planning for individuals and households.

  • BUDGETING. this is a MASSIVE help to planning your finances. This way, you can plan out what is essential to spend money on each month, and how much money you have available to spend on other things
  • HELP can be found through schemes such as the Citizens Advice Bureau is finacial planning gets to be too much or you find yourself in debt that you cannot control.
  • get a family member or friend who may have more experience than you do to help you out with finacial planning.
  • make sure you know the amount of income coming into the household each month and the exact amount that goes out in expendures. 
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Changing eating patterns

  • Meal times - families dont eat together bc of work, school etc, more technology
  • Snacking - widely available, enjoyable to eat, lack of time for meal
  • Grazing 
  • Dashboard dining - food eaten in the car on the way to school/work etc, convinient to do so because of drive thrus etc.
  • Desk breakfast

This has happened bc:

  • More disposable income
  • More working mums
  • More people live alone
  • More eating out
  • Limited cooking skills and knowledge
  • Lack of time
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Choice of food inside and outside the home


  • Ready to make/ Ready prepared / Ready to heat
  • Ready to eat


  • Restaurants/Pubs
  • Drive thrus
  • Cafes/Coffee shops
  • Service stations
  • Corner shop
  • Supermarket
  • Takeaways
  • Road side van
  • Airport/Hospital
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Developments in food choice

  • Frozen and chill foods
  • Supermarket own brands/Premium brands
  • Vegetarian and meat alternative products
  • Healthy foods
  • Ethnic foods
  • Local and regionally sourced foods
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Psychological, social, technological, economic an


  • physiological need for food, eating can replace emotions for some people 'comfort eating', anorexia/bulimia, everyone has their own eating preferences, food is appealing to the senses (smell, sight etc), influence of the media


  • geographical location, changing family and households eg working mums less time to prepare food, changing work patterns, more leisure time, prep/cooking equipment available, health issues, emergence of 'health conscious' may drive people to buy fairtrade or organic products that they previously wouldnt have

Economic + Cultural

  • Income, Advertising and marketing strategies, eg BOGOF, government policies, 
  • Festivals/days of worship, cultural and religious groups, migration


  • Ownership of microwaves, fridge/freezers, developments in food packaging and food products and ICT and transport
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Purchase of resources appropriate to needs

Needs affecting food choice :) :)

    • Cultural and religious - more ethnic food available eg Halal 
    • Health and special dietary needs - lots of fortified foods available!!
    • Meeting personal preferences - vegetarian, fair trade, organic
    • To meet £££ resources available - own brands, offers such as BOGOF
    • Convenience - ready meals etc
    • Appeal to children and reassure parents - lots of food products aimed at children, promoted with labels reassuring that they are free from additives.
    • Need for safe food - food scares !!! triggered by events such as horse meat, salmonella in eggs 
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Different types of individuals and resources


  • limited ££££, should write lists for shopping and stick to them, make in bulk, carbs for filling up, can just overall make resources cheaper


  • save energy, batch baking, use of a microwave for quick meals, own brands, single portions may be more cost effective, frozen meat cheaper than fresh, tinned foods


  • ready made solutions v helpful, avoid high salt / fat / sugar!!! , freezer for storing meals, microwave to save time,
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Consumer rights

Supply and Sales of Goods Act 1994 - goods must be: satisfactory quality, fit for purpose and as described. if not, a refund, repair or replacement should be offered. (applies to 2nd hand 2)

Food and Drugs Act 1955 - named and labelled correctly, produced in hygienic conditions.

Weight and Measure Act 1963 - ensures weight of product is accurate 

Trades Description Act 1968/1972 - customer must not be misled in any way about type of good, price, quality, etc.

The Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982 - supplier of service must carry it out with reasonable service/skill, reasonable time and reasonable charge. 

Codes of Practise - trade associations have these; speedy and efficient services, details on min. charges etc

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Consumer Protection

The Office of Fair Trading - protects consumers and explains their rights and ensures businesses operate and compete fairly. recommends to gov when new laws/changes are needed to protect consumers. publishes info 2 consumers about their rights. make sure goods are safe and enforce consumer leglisation eg Weights and Measures Act. prosecute bad traders.

Trading Standards Department - provides info to consumers businesses and skls. ensure goods and services described accurately. enfore Sales and Supply of Goods Act and Trades Description Act. make recommendations to gov also and enforce laws and prosecute traders. 

Food Standards Agency - help ppl eat more healthy, better labelling, gd practise within food industry 

Environmental Health Department - monitors safety and quality of food outside of home. deals with environmental emergencies. 

CAB - free and confidential £££ advice

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Complaints procedures.

Step 1 : Make sure facts are correct and go to shop of purchase. Explain prob, write letter to head office, send another letter or ring, if complaint still not resolved then:

Step 2: Conciliation. to enable parties to settle differences themselves. usually involve trade associations who help resolve disputes. FREE and informal 

Step 3: Arbitration. alternative to court, both sides put their versions of story in writing, to an independant arbitraitor. their decision is final and binding (they are an expert in the field concerned). NOT FREE

Step 4: COURT. last resort!! for compensation less than £15000, two most common complaints are for faulty SERVICES or faulty GOODS. if this doesnt resolve it then final action may be to contact a soliciter but is it really worth it after all that :///

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Advantages and disadvantages of retail outlets

Supermarkets - A: often have multiple services so can complete everything under one roof eg cafe dry cleaners, own brand products, can buy in bulk, will most likely have your product. D: can be busy as lots of people go there, may not have what you want, may not have local produce, may be far from your home

Specialist shops - A: will have the product you desire, the workers will be knowledgeable on the products and will be able to give accurate info, may not be able to find in other shops. D: may be difficult to get to/not many shops available like such in your local area, may be more £££

Internet - A: can look and purchase 24/7, often more deals online, can price compare. D: may take a while for product to be delivered, may not be how it appeared online, 

Markets - A: local, fresh produce usually, cheap, local, different kinds of markets to suit your needs. D: may not be very good quality, might not have product you want, weekly/monthly

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Sources of info available when purchasing goods

Media consumer reports 

TV programmes


Consumer exhibitions - specialist advice about ranges of items

Consumer help lines


Word of mouth


Visiting the retailer

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Marketing strategies - customer loyalty


Above the line : £££, celeb endorsement, TV/radio/mags, increases customer awareness

Below the line : less £££, direct mailing/flyers

TV Advertising

In store activity: eg BOGOF, price reductions, product placement v important



Loyalty cards: database of shopper habits, used to increase sales and expand range of products, can target audience better

In store facilities: free parking, trolley choices, creche, restaurant, free bus, wide isles, carry to car service, toilets, newsagents/pharmacy, money off coupons

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Technological advances in retailing/distrubution o

Distrubution - rise in single sourcing and local produce bc of ££ to transport

Benefits to consumer of technology - efficiency, constant availability of food, faster checkouts, efficient pricing, wider range of in store services

Greater availability of food products - ICT networks link retailer to supplier so faster orders of produce, delivieries rescheduled by computers automatically when product is low

Efficient pricing 

Purchasing options - internet a massive factor!!! shop in bulk, more convinient, can repeat food orders, more choices/better deals online

Payment options -  self scanning and self service checkouts.

Convienience during shopping - automated doors, wide aisles, escalators for trolleys, in store bakeries, electronic scales/food labels to update price, complementary beverages

Developments in food safety - can easily trace food online, temp sensors

Faster more efficient transportation - plane/train/ship, increased lorry length

Stock control  and Developments in food packaging - MAP (modified atmosphere packaging), ready meals

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factors influencing selection and purchase of equi

  • DESIGN (size, colour, shape, suitable, safe etc)
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Cooking equipment labels

  • CE MARK - LOW reliability, as it is a self certification mark applied by the manufacturer, indicates that the appliance meets regulations of EU law. minimum legal requirements for health and safety.
  • BEAB mark - HIGH reliability, undergoes rigurous testing covering all aspects of safety, guarantees a products safety.
  • BSI Kitemark - VERY HIGH reliability, only seen on items that have passed stringent tests (very hard to pass), products tested for electrical safety, flammability and strength. product tested and assessed at regular intervals.
  • European eco label - official award for products that meet a high environmental standard, used on a wide range of household goods eg toilet rolls, washing powder
  • EU energy label - states the energy efficiency of the product. products rated from A to G - A = most efficient. 
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Microorganisms :(((((

Campylobacter - most common cause of food poisoning in UK, found in intestines of animals and birds, usually in contaminated food eg raw poultry, contaminated water, infected farm animals... wash hands and cook food thoroughly!! symptoms: diarrhoea, vomiting, cramps, fever for a week

Salmonella - 2000+ strains, found in raw meat/poultry, intestines of farm animals, veg infected by manure in soil or sewage in sea water, cross contamination, spread via poor hygiene, survive on unwashed hands for 3 hours, symptoms: dehydration, diarrhoea, stomach pains, symptoms : 12/72 hours after, destroyed when food cooked above 75c. also eggs

Listeria - treated by antibiotics, 2 forms: 1 gives flu like symptoms, the other more toxic: severe blood poisoning or meningitis. those with weak immune system more likely to get toxic 1 eg elderly. grows at low temps eg in fridge @ 4c. cooked meat, smoked fish, unpasturised dairy products. need TIME to reproduce. 90 days for symptoms!! 

E-coli - many types, lots can cause illness with symptoms from mild diarrhoea to v severe inflammation of the gut. intestines of animals. most important strain = e.coli 0157 (causes v severe illness). found in raw and uncooked meats, fruit juices, raw veg. can survive fridge/freezer but thorough cooking destroys. symptoms after 2 days, mainly poo. sometimes can cause death!!!! can happen bc of expose to animals/animal poo and not washing hands after

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More microorganisms :(

Clostridium perfringens - found in food thats made in large quantities. survives in soil so fruit and veg. forms SPORES that survive in dry atmos. sources: raw meat, water, soil, sewage. bacteria produces a TOXIN to cause illness. spores = heat resistant, not killed by cooking, infect the gut and produce toxins there. spores germinate and multiply . short lived (one day) but symptoms are vomiting, diarrhoea and stomach pain.

Staphylococcus aureus - found on human skin and mucus, so transmitted via hand contact or sneezing/coughing. can cause food poisoning, produces toxin that causes all the usual symptoms; most strains destroyed by antibiotics. cross contamination. multiply and produce toxin at room temp, destroyed @ high temp. but toxin can survive boiling for 20 mins. how sneaky.

Clostridium botulinum - Most dangerous :( v rare but often is fatal! found in soil, often on fruit and veg but doesnt multiply in air so fresh veg is safe yay. sewage also. bacteria produces a very HEAT RESISTANT SPORE. can multiply without air and produces v toxin poison :( bottled/canned foods at risk bc not very acidic, temp was not high enough to destroy spores.

Bacillus cereus - found in soil, dust, cereal foods like rice and pasta. only small # of bacteria causes illness. multiply rapidly at room temp. the bacteria form spores. (heat resistant). which can survive boiling and multiply if food is cooled slowly 

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conditions and factors necessary for growth

  • BACTERIAL GROWTH CYCLE: lag phase (organisms grow slowly at first), log phase (start to divide rapidly, but food might not show obvious signs of contamination), stationary phase (rate of multiplication slows as number of cells produced is same as number of cells dying = constant), death phase (# of cells dying becomes higher, food becomes 'off).

Temperature: MESOPHILES - grow most rapidly @ room temp (20-40c). PSYCHROPHILES - grow in cool temps 0-10c. THERMOPHILES - 50-70c. DANGER ZONE = 5-63C. kitchen temp and body temp (20 and 37c) bacteria grow most rapidly. below 5c most are DORMANT (unable to divide rapidly). cooking food about 63c destroys most bacteria. core must reach 72c for 2 mins. 

Moisture: most bacteria require HIGH levels. MOULDS grow at LOW levels. YEAST grows in HIGH SUGAR OR SALT conditions. w/o moisture bacteria cant multiply :/ dried food contaminated if stored in humid environment. 

Time: when left in warm, moist protein rich conditions bacteria reproduce rapidly within a few hours!! 

Oxygen: AEROBES: require o2 to grow eg bacillus cereus. ANAEROBES: dont, clostridium perfringens. anaerobes can survive vaccuum packaging. some can grow with or without eg salmonella

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more conditions/factors

Food: require a food source to grow. 

high risk foods: cooked meat/poultry, shellfish/seafood, undercooked eggs, soft cheese, gravies/sauces/soups, cooked rice and pasta

bacteria need a rich source of protein :) 

Acidity or Alkalinity: most bacteria like neutral pH 7 or slightly alkali 7.4. BACTERIA WILL NOT GROW BELOW PH 4.5. lemon juice or vinegar can be used as a preservative as they have conditions where bacteria is unlikely to survive. 

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Sources and methods of transmission

  • cross contamination
  • not cooking foods thoroughly
  • not storing foods correctly
  • keeping cooked foods unrefridgerated
  • being unhygienic - not washing hands then touching things
  • dirt; lots of bacteria found in soil (then transmitted to fruit and veg)
  • via animals; touching animals or eating meat in which bacteria is in the intestines of the animal and has contaminated it.
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safe handling: storage, prep and cooking


  • Store foods at the correct temperatures. fridge = 5c or less, freezers = -18 to -26c, bacterias dormant at these temps so cant multiply. danger zone = 5c to 63c so yh
  • raw food @ bottom of fridge in covered container 
  • food should be defrosted thorougly before cooking - in the fridge so it is out of the danger zone
  • dont refreeze defrosted meat bc bacteria growth higher when defrosting so when it is refrozen will contain higher levels of bacteria.
  • dont put open cans into fridge bc metal might transfer to cans contents


  • hands must be washed with hot/warm water before handling food 
  • raw food kept away from ready to eat foods eg bread as bacteria could easily be transferred and wouldnt be killed during cooking as its already ready to eat


  • food @ 72c for 2 mins, food must be cooked all the way through. seal meat bc ensures bacteria on outside killed 2. you will know its sealed bc will have changed colour.use suitable equipment for hot holding
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patterns of food poisoning outbreaks

  • increased public awareness of food poisoning bc of media
  • changing shopping habits - stored food at home for longer, more risk
  • more comsumption of cook chill foods - require controlled low temp storage, not given
  • hot weathers and BBQ 
  • more meals outside of the home - increase risk as not all places may comply to regulations
  • more foreign travel 
  • globalisation of food market - infected foods brought into the UK
  • advances of science so more able to detect microorganisms
  • emergence of new strains of microorganisms
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HOW is food contaminated

  • physical contamination - broken glass, hair, nails, jewellery, dust, dirt
  • chemical contamination 
  • biological hazards
  • moulds/yeasts/viruses/bacteria
  • food poisoning
  • people
  • animals
  • air and dust
  • soil
  • food waste
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Food safety leglisation

  • Food Safety Act 1990 - ensures the safety of food, affects everyone involved from farm to fork. failure to take precautions can lead to prosecution; fine or prison sentence or both :o
  • General Food Law Regulation 178/2002 - import and export of food into the EU. covers food safety. food = unsafe if unfit for human consumption or harmful to health. labelling and advertising must not mislead customers. must keep records of source of their foods. 

Food Standards Agency


set up in 2000 to protect publics health.

involved in all aspects of food safety eg farming, food hygiene and food bourne illness, novel foods and food additives, chem contamination and radioactive safety, food tolerance, food standards and quality, nutrition, food labelling and products.

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Role of environmental health department

  • maintained by local authority to police food safety lwas
  • EHO: suprivise visits to food premises, inspect it, offer food hygiene training courses and supply leaflets with necessary info .
  • they inspect premises, to make sure correct procedures are being followed eg regular recording of temps and if the staff hygiene certificates are up to date.
  • inspect premises if complaints have been made about quality/state of food or premise. investigation involves taking samples of suspect food for testing, work surfaces and equipment may also be taken.

Two types of notices that a EHO can serve:

1) Hygiene Improvement Notice - written or verbal warning identifying the failures, remedies and time scales for improvements including training

2) Emergency Prohibition Notice - if there is a significant risk to health. stopping process or equipment. has to be displayed to the public on the premises, to avoid the notice businesses may close voluntarily. 

they can also award a low hygiene rating using the scores on the doors.can take food establishments to court. which could result in the business closing. 

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Food hygiene regulations 2006

  • whole food chain is covered from farm to fork
  • improves the traceability of food, gd for food poisoning outbreak
  • food businesses must put into place a food safety management system such as HACCP to show they're doing everything possible to produce food in a hygienic manner
  • stages of HACCP are identify all possible hazards and put steps into place to eliminate the hazards or reduce to an acceptable level. 
  • have records to prove that they are following the HACCP. (responsibility of the owner).
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