Case Study Internal Migration in the UK

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Case Study: Internal migration in the UK p121
Why have people migrated from the rural and upland areas? E.g. Scottish
highlands, the Pennines
Physical push factors:
Climate is harsher
The relief of that land is steep and hilly
Soils are waterlogged, thin and acid
The areas are remote and accessibility is poor
Human push factors:
Limited services and employment opportunities
Why have people moved from areas of declining heavy industrial areas? E.g. north
east England and South Wales
In the industrial revolution, these were wealthy, growing regions which attracted large
numbers of people searching for work in the coalmines, shipyards, steelworks and textile
mills. However, since the end of WWII these regions have been in decline. In the 1980s
unemployment was over 50% in some areas. The only solution for many people was to
move away to find jobs elsewhere in the county.
Why have people moved out from inner city problem areas? E.g. Greater London,
Birmingham, Glasgow and Newcastle.
Many people have left the inner city areas in the UK because of a variety of social,
economical and environmental push factors:
Declining industries
Low incomes
Poor access to motorways
High crime rates
Old terraced housing
Air and noise pollution
Derelict land and buildings
Lack of open space
Vandalism and graffiti
Why are people choosing to live in the countryside?
Many people choose to live in the countryside and commute to work in the large towns and
cities. Improved transport links and faster cars and trains make longdistance commuting
possible. They prefer the more peaceful country life in attractive market towns and villages.
The environment is more pleasant with less congestion, air and noise pollution. In some
areas house prices may also be cheaper. Pensioners from towns and cities have migrated to
traditional tourist resorts such as Devon and Cornwall, attracted by the pleasant climate and
attractive scenery.


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