Migration

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  • Created by: elletseb
  • Created on: 07-06-16 22:12
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  • Migration - the movement of people to a new country or area
    • Key Terms
      • Immigration
        • When people move into an area
          • These people are called Immigrants
      • Emigration
        • When people leave an area
          • These people are called Emmigrants
      • International Migration
        • Migration between two countries
      • Internal Migration
        • Movement of people within the same country
      • Forced Migration
        • Migration where people have little or no choice
          • i.e. refugees are forced to migrate for their safety
      • Voluntary Migration
        • When a person makes the decision to move
    • Push & Pull Factors
      • Push factors
        • Things about a person's country of origin which makes them want to move
        • i.e. high unemployment, housing shortages, poor healthcare, a natural disaster
          • i.e. Refugees forced to leave due to war or natural disaster
      • Pull factors
        • Things about a person's host country that attract them
        • i.e. job opportunities, educational opportunities, better healthcare, improved housing
          • i.e. Economic migrants move voluntarily from poor to richer places looking for better work and wages
    • Impacts of Migration
      • On source country
        • Reduced demand on services
        • Money often sent back to families of emigrants still in source country
        • Labour shortage- mostly people of working age emigrate
        • Skills shortage - sometimes more highly educated people that emigrate
        • Ageing population - high proportion of older people left
      • On host country
        • Locals and migrants compete for jobs - can lead to tensions
        • Increased demand for services
        • Not all money earned by immigrants spent in host countries - some sent back to country of origin
        • Increased labour force- young people emigrate to find work
        • Migrant workers pay taxes that help fund services
        • Helps prevent and support ageing population
    • CASE STUDY Economic Migration. Poland --> UK
      • Push Factors
        • High unemployment - 18.2% in 2005
        • Polish GDP/capita $12,700 compared to $30,900 in UK (2006)
        • Youth unemployment - 40% faced even by those with a high level of education
      • Pull Factors
        • UK unemployment only 5.1% (2005)
        • Poland joined EU in 2004 - easier to get into UK
          • UK one of few countries that doesn't place a limit on number of immigrants
        • Can earn 4-5 times as much in UK whilst cost of living only 2 times as much
        • Average no. of UK vacancies at end of 2006 was 607,900
      • Impacts on Source Country
        • Fewer people left unemployed looking for a job in Poland
        • £4bil. sent back to Poland from abroad (remittences) in 2005/06
          • Accounts for 1/3 of economic growth
        • In 2008 labour shortages reported in Poland
          • In sectors such as agriculture (fruit growth)
      • Impacts on Host Country
        • £2.54bn. contributed to UK economy by eastern EU immigrants
        • 80% of new immigrants in 2004 ages 18-35
          • Helps prevent ageing population and lower National Insurance
        • 2003-2010 Polish born population increased from 75,000 to 532,000
          • Polish people seen to be motivated and hard working
        • Broad geographical spread of Polish migrants has brought large-scale migration to areas which haven't experienced it before
          • Has created tensions and misunderstandings
            • Anti Polish graffiti has appeared on streets of a number of UK cities
    • CASE STUDY- Afghanistan Refugee movements to the EU
      • Background
        • 2001 9/11 Terror attacks caused George Bush to launch war on Taliban in Afghanistan with UK and other NATO countries
          • Last soldiers air lifted out in 2014
        • 3 million Afghan refugees worldwide
          • 23,406 in UK (2010)
      • Calais
        • Refugees built makeshift settlements of homes and shacks near channel tunnel
        • 700-800 Waiting there in Aug. 2009
        • Many didn't feel safe in France but thought England was a good and safe country for them
        • Sep. 2009 - remaining migrants arrested and settlement bulldozed
          • However most were simply released back into France so returned to Calais to try and get into England
      • Impacts
        • Migrants so desperate they jump into trucks and lorries, frustrating drivers
          • Some drivers beat them up or charge them exorbitant amounts of money to illegally smuggle them across
        • People passing through or living nearby feel threatened
          • Carry metal bars for protection
          • Some quitting their job as a result of issues here
        • Rival groups within settlement - turf wars about most accessible route to tunnel/ferry
          • 50 injured in a rock throwing frenzy, required police to be broken up
        • Some have set up camp on site of abandoned factory - full of phosphorus and sulfuric acid
        • Safer for many in Calais than in home country
        • Some locals have taken pity on them
          • One allows a few to shower in her home
          • Given dinner by two local charities every night

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