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[STRUCTURE, BONDING & PROPERTIES] C2.1 and C2.2





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[STRUCTURE, BONDING & PROPERTIES] C2.1 and C2.2



Chemical Bonding
When 2 or more elements react together a compound if formed. Elements react together to
achieve stable electronic structures. When atoms of non-metallic elements join together by
sharing electrons are called covalent bonding. When metallic elements react together they
form ions…

Page 3

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[STRUCTURE, BONDING & PROPERTIES] C2.1 and C2.2








Ionic Substances




Ionic compounds are made from both metals and non-metals
Ions are packed together in an ordered regular structure in a giant ionic lattice
Each ion is surrounded by several ions of opposite charge
Opposite electrical charges attract so each ion is…

Page 4

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[STRUCTURE, BONDING & PROPERTIES] C2.1 and C2.2


As a solid, ions are vibrating in a fixed position so they do not conduct electricity
When the ionic compound has melted, it can conduct electricity
Many ionic compounds dissolve in water. When they dissolve they are free to move
around making the…

Page 5

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[STRUCTURE, BONDING & PROPERTIES] C2.1 and C2.2


This means they are solid at room temperature. A lot of energy is needed to overcome
the ionic bonds to melt the solids.
Ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points.
When some compounds are melted, the ions are free to move. This…

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[STRUCTURE, BONDING & PROPERTIES] C2.1 and C2.2






















Page 7

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[STRUCTURE, BONDING & PROPERTIES] C2.1 and C2.2




Diamond
Molecular Structure
- A giant covalent structure known as a macromolecular structure
- Has no delocalised electrons
- Each carbon atom forms 4 single covalent bonds in a rigid giant covalent structure.

Properties
- A high melting point of approximately 3550 degrees…

Page 8

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[STRUCTURE, BONDING & PROPERTIES] C2.1 and C2.2


- Can polish and cut materials
- It can be used to make jewellery due to its transparent and beautiful aesthetic.

Intermolcular and Intramolecular Forces
- Strong intermolecular forces shown in the strong structure present
- Intramolecular force on diamond is the covalent…

Page 9

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[STRUCTURE, BONDING & PROPERTIES] C2.1 and C2.2


- Crystallizes into the hexagonal system




- A single sheet of graphite is called Graphene

Uses
- Lubricant
- The "lead" of a pencil as it leaves marks and has a loose intermolecular structure
- In AA and AAA batteries as there is…

Page 10

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[STRUCTURE, BONDING & PROPERTIES] C2.1 and C2.2


Properties
- Extremely stable
- Can withstand high temperature and pressure
- Do not bond with each other
- Resilient to impact and deformation
- Can pop back into shape if deformed
- Soluble in many solvents and the only carbon allotrope that…

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